Membrane hormonal receptors
produces changes in cells
Usually fast acting and short duration
Intracellular hormonal receptors
produces changes in DNA --> mRNA production
Usually slow response time and longer duration
Chemical nature of hormones
Amino acid derivatives – thyroxine and NE
Proteins and peptides
HRF’s and HIF’s - regulate secretions of anterior pituitary
ADH and OT – produced by nerve cells in hypothalamus and delivered via axonal transport to the posterior pituitary.
Anterior pituitary hormone
TSH- Thyroid Stimulating hormone
ACTH- Thyroid Stimulating hormone
MSH Melanocyte Stimulating hormone
LH Luteinizing hormone
FSH Follicle Stimulating hormone
Muscle and skeletal growth
(Growth Hormone Anterior pituitary)
Hyposecretion - dwarfism
(Anterior pituitary - Thyroid Stimulating Hormone)
Increases secretions of cortisol from the adrenal cortex (kidney)
(Anterior pituitary - Adrenocorticotropic Hormone )
Increases production of melanin by melanocytes of skin
(Anterior pituitary - Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone)
Stimulates ovulation and progesterone secretion
Stimulates testosterone secretion in the male
(Anterior pituitary - Luteinizing Hormone)
Stimulates egg development and estrogen production
Stimulates sperm production in the male
(Anterior pituitary - Follicle Stimulating Hormone)
Stimulates milk production and prolongs progesterone secretion
Increases sensitivity to LH in males
(Anterior pituitary - Prolactin)
Increases water absorption in the kidney – reduces urine volume
inhibited by alcohol
- "over flow" and "tasteless"
- unquenchable thirst
(Posterior Pituitary Antidiuretic Hormone)
Stimulates uterine contractions (used to induce labor)
Stimulates milk “let down”
Posterior Pituitary - Oxytocin
T3 and T4
Increases BMR (metabolic rate) - energy required to keep you alive
Goiter and iodine
thyroid gland – thyroxine and triodothyronine
lowers blood calcium levels
increase Calcium when levels are low
stimulated when calcium levels are low
Stimulates absorption of calcium by digestive tract and osteoclast activity to release calcium from bone matrix
Parathyroid Glands - Parathyroid Hormone
Adrenal Glands hormones
1. Increases sodium and water reabsorption by kidneys
Adrenal Cortex - Aldosterone
2. Androgens - Female sex drive and hair growth
Increase blood glucose levels
Inhibits inflammation and immune response
gives energy to combat body's stressors
Adrenal Cortex – Cortisol
fight or flight response (adrenalin)
decreases blood glucose by glycogenesis, increasing glucose storage in liver and muscle cells, and also by increasing glucose uptake by body cells
increases blood glucose levels by glycogenolysis, releasing glucose from storage, and stimulating gluconeogenesis.
Stimulates development of the immune system
Inhibits secretion of gonadotropin-releasing-factor (GRF- sex hormone)-->
Pineal body –
Long days inhibit secretion
ranges from 4.5 to 5.5
therefore blood is thicker than water
resists blood pressure
100.4 degree F or 38 degrees C.
7.35 to a pH of 7.45
Minor shifts in pH to the acidic (acidosis-lower) to the basic
(alkalosis higher) have major effects on the functioning of the body as a whole
from 0.85% to 0.9%
about concentration of the primitive seas in which life first began!
blood comprises approximately 8% of the total weight of the body.
As body weight increases, the amount of blood needed to supply nutrients to the tissues also increases.
males 5 to 6 liters
females 4 to 5 liters of blood.
Functions of the Blood
Regulation- pH, Temperature, Water concentration of tissue fluids and cells
Protection- Clotting mechanisms, Cellular and chemical immunit
accumulation of water in the tissue
can be caused by imbalance in the osmotic pressure of the blood (regulation)
plasma (55%) - liquid portion
formed elements(45%) cellular component
(Pleuripotential hemopoietic stem cells) Hemopoiesis
derived from mesenchyme and can differentiate into all types of blood cells
transports oxygen (oxyhemoglobin) and a little carbon dioxide
produced in bone marrow
live for about 120 days
Rate of production about 2-3 million/second
Production of RBC's
Embryo - 1st weeks - yolk sac
2nd trimester - liver, spleen, and lymph nodes
3rd trimester - bone marrow exclusively
Birth to 5 years - all bones
20 years and older - vertebrae, sternum, ribs, and ilia
Gradual decline in RBC production with age
spleen - narrow sinusoids
Hb phagocytized by spleen and liver cells
globin broken down into amino acids
heme broken down into iron components (recycled) and
non-iron component - biliverdin - bilirubin - small intestine
Leucocytes (white blood cells or W.B.C.'s)
blood carries WBC's, but they function outside the blood
Life spans vary from hours (during infections) to years
ex. lymphocytes returned to the blood via lymphatic circulation
-PHILS AND -CYTES
phagocytic white blood cells that comprise
60-70% of the total white blood cell count
acute infections - first line of defense
comprise 2-4% of the total white blood cell count
the least numerous
0.5-1% of the total white blood cell count
function in the production of histamine and heparin
associated with the inflammation response
large phagocytic white blood cells
3-8% of the total white blood cell count
20-25% of the total white blood cell count
production of antibodies that combat viral infections
adhere to the exposed collagen fibers of damaged blood vessels and fragments thus initiating the clotting reaction.
Composition of plasma
Water - 91.5%
Plasma proteins: Albumins, Globulins, Fibrinogen
NPN (Non-protein nitrogen) - nitrogenous waste products such as urea
Nutrients - Glucose, fats, vitamins, minerals, etc.
Regulatory substances - Enzymes and hormones
Plasma proteins manufactured in the liver
maintain the viscosity and osmotic pressure of the blood
Plasma antibody proteins released by plasma cells
agents of immunity (e.g. gamma globulin)
soluble precursor to the protein fibrin that functions in the clotting reaction. Plasma proteins manufactured in the liver.
Factors that control blood loss after damage to vessels
After a blood vessel has been damaged,
the smooth muscle associated with the wall of the vessel contracts
and narrows the vessel's diameter
Damage to the wall of the blood vessel
exposes collagen fibers, which in turn cause platelets to enlarge and adhere to the wall of the vessel
enzyme plasminogen is converted to plasmin, and plasmin begins the process of dissolving the clot
(t-PA) breaks down fibrin so WBC eat it up
the clotting of blood in an unbroken vessel
– the clot itself
– a clot, fat globule, air bubble, or some other potential obstruction
in the blood stream.
an embolus that has lodged in a vessel and has cut off the blood supply
blocks some essential step in the clotting pathway
inhibits the production of an essential component of the reaction.
inhibits the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
acts directly on the clotting sequence - it is fast acting.
an antagonist to vitamin K
slowing the production of prothrombin in the liver.
dissolve clots that have formed in unbroken vessels (e.g. coronary vessels). used to reduce damage to the myocardium in the early stages of coronary thrombosis.
CPD – citrate phosphate dextrose
ACD – acid citrate dextrose
EDTA – ethylenediamine tetracetic acid
chemicals that bind to calcium in blood
clotting is inhibited
but the blood retains its ability to clot once it has been introduced into a patient with active calcium ions in his or her blood
due to lack of iron; protein; and vitamin B12A in diet
dietary supplements or changes in eating habits
due to loss of blood (could be internal)
isolation of the cause of the bleeding.
Hemolysis- the destruction of RBC
can be produced by any number of factors (e.g. parasitic infections, bacteria, venoms)
identify and remove the agent responsible for the destruction of R.B.C.’s.
the bone marrow’s inability to produce RBC even though all nutritional factors are there
Poisons, radiation, and genetic factors
serious and life threatening
bone marrow transplant
Sickle cell anemia
only one amino acid in the protein chain of hemoglobin is incorrect,
blood cells produced with abnormal shapes and reduced oxygen carrying capacity
abnormally high RBC
athletes blood doping
produced by the virus called EBV (Epstein-Barr virus)
As with any viral infection, the lymphocytes activated and produce antibodies to combat the invading organism
elevated WBC count
short time (transient) high WBC count (infections, mono)
based on the presence or absence of A/B antigens present on the cell membranes of red blood cells
while you have the antibodies for the RBC antigens that you do not possess
O - universal donor
AB - universal recipient
the condition in the second Rh positive child that is conceived due to mother’s blood building antibodies to the Rh factor during the first pregnancy
a bi-layered covering separate from the surface of the heart
outer layer of the parietal pericardium
attaches the heart to the diaphragm and body wall (keeps it in place)
prevents over distention of the heart (doesn't get too big)
lines the parietal pericardium
secretes lubricating fluids
covers the surface of the heart itself
secretes lubricating fluids
the potential space between the serous layer of the parietal pericardium and the visceral pericardium
the upper chambers
receives blood returning to the heart
The thin muscular wall that separates the right and left atria
the depression in the interatrial septum that marks the position of the opening between the right and left atria hat was present in the fetal heart (foramen ovale)
the grooves on the anterior and posterior surfaces of the heart that externally mark the position of the interventricular septum
the site of major coronary vessels that travel over the surface of the heart.
2 major veins that return blood to the right atrium from the body.
drains blood from all structures
Superior - above the diaphragm (except the myocardium itself)
Inferior - below the diaphragm.
prevents the back flow of blood into the atrium during ventricular contraction.
Tricuspid - between the right atrium and right ventricle
Bicuspid - between the left atrium and left ventricle
These are connective tissue cords
extend from the flaps of the AV valves to the papillary muscles located in the walls of the ventricle.
contract during ventricular contraction
exert tension on the chordae tendineae to prevent AV valves from being forced open by the pressure of the blood in the ventricles.
if week blood can be forced through the valve back into the atria during ventricular contraction (valvular prolapse and heart murmur.)
Branches from right ventricle to the right and left lungs.
The major artery that carries blood from the left ventricle to the body
between the aorta and the pulmonary trunk
conducted blood directly hole between the pulmonary trunk and the aorta to by-pass the pulmonary circuit.
“meaty plates” of myocardium that can be observed in the walls of the ventricles.
strengthen the walls of the ventricles
facilitate the ejection of blood during ventricular contraction
Outline of Blood Flow (Pulmonary and Systemic Circuits)
when blood is delivered to all the bodies tissues except the myocardium
top # for blood pressure
when myocardium receives blood via the coronary arteries
bottom# for blood pressure
branch from the ascending aorta just superior to the aortic semilunar valve
When the left ventricle contracts, a surge of blood flows up the aorta and the aortic semilunar valve prevents blood from entering these arteries
but when the ventricle is relaxed the blood tries to go backwards but cant due to the closed valve and then goes down these artereis to perfuse the myocardium
The Conduction System of the Heart
regulates the beating of the heart
made of cardiac muscle cells
capable of self-stimulation and contraction
efficient pumping action
influenced by the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS).
right atrium just inferior to the superior vena cava opening
pacemaker of the heart
action potential generated
in the base of the right atrium near the interatrial septum
the signal is slowed as it passes through the AV node allowing the atria to complete their contraction phase before the ventricles are stimulated.
portion of the conduction system that relays the signal from the AV node
into the interventricular septum.
After entering the interventricular septum
travel down the interventricular septum to the apex of the heart and then pass superiorly sending off branches into the ventricular myocardium
allows the down and up again pathway pushing upward toward the pulmonary and aortic openings
represent the depolarization and repolarization of the myocardium
The actual contraction of the atria and ventricles follow the peaks recorded
changes visualize can indicate damage
depolarization of the atria
blocks the visualization of the repolarization of the atria because it is at the same time
the pressure generated in the atria during atrial systole
the pressure within the arteries leaving the heart that results from the volume of blood in the vessels and the contraction of the arteries themselves.
Sequence of Events in the Cardiac Cycle
first closing of the AV valves louder
second closing of the semi lunar valves softer
represent abnormal sounds produced by blood as it flows backward through damaged valves
systolic murmurs - damaged AV valves
Diastolic murmurs - damaged semilunar valves
a measure of the effective pumping action of the left ventricle
CO = stroke volume (ejection fraction) x beats per minute
70 ml x 70 beats per minute = 4900ml or 5L per minute (on average)
rate of the heart increases, cardiac output also increases (but limited)
= EDV -- ESV
70 = 120 - 50mL (on average)
the amount of blood that is found in the ventricles at the end of the filling phase (ventricular diastole) just prior to the contraction phase.
deceased if heart rate increases, ventricle relaxation decreased
decrease- the strength of contraction increases
increase- increased heart rate
amount of blood that the heart can pump over and above the normal CO observed in the resting state
normal heart can increase CO by 400%
well exercised heart - over 600%
heart rate and force increases, CO will increase, but only to a point because the length of time that the ventricles are in diastole decreases and EDV diseases.
critical relationship between heart rate and stroke volume
Factors that influence rate and force
1. Nervous stimulation (ANS)
2. Chemicals (e.g. epinephrine (NE), acetylcholine (Ach))
3. Temperature (increase temperature = increased rate)
4. Emotions (indirect stimulation of ANS)
5. Gender (females typically have higher heart rates)
6. Age (rate is highest in the fetus and decreases with age)
Cardioacceleratory Center (CAC)
Cardioinhibitory Center (CIC)
sympathetic nervous system
to the SA node and myocardium
increases in both rate and force
Action of norepinephrine (NE)
parasympathetic nervous system
to the SA node
decreasing the rate of contraction.
action of acetylcholine (Ach)
Baroreceptors in the internal carotid arteries
monitor blood pressure and convey signals to the medulla.
An increase in blood pressure stimulates the CIC and inhibits the CAC
A decrease in blood pressure results in the stimulation of the CAC.
A decrease in arterial blood pressure will result
in an increase in heart rate and vice versa.
drop in blood pressure when standing up from a reclining position
due to abnormally long lag period in the response to the carotid sinus reflex.
Baroreceptors located in the aortic arch
similar to the Carotid Sinus Reflex (in carotid arteries)
Right Heart Reflex (Bainbridge reflex)
baroreceptors monitor venous blood pressure in the right atrium and the vena cavae
venous blood pressure rise - CAC - speed up the flow of blood from the venous system through the heart
congestive heart failure- system fails and heart’s inability to “keep up” with venous return causes blood backs up in the venous system
increased force of contraction an increase in venous return
The heart within physiological limits will efficiently pump all the blood it receives with no venous pooling.
The Shock Cycle
Hypoxia of Brain and other Organs
Increased Capillary Permeability…
a category of shock
Cardiac Output- increased CO
Blood Volume- increased blood volume
Peripheral Resistance- increased resistance
involves altering one or more of the factor that influence blood pressure.
Beta blockers –
Calcium channel blockers
Low sodium diets-
Vasomotor Center of the Medulla
controls the B.P. with diameter of arterioles by vasomotor tone (i.e. the partial sustained contraction)
entirely through sympathetic nervous system controlling both vasoconstriction and vasodilation.
Increased Sympathetic Stimulation
Decreased Sympathetic Stimulation
receptors in the aorta and carotids
stimulates vasoconstriction and an increase in B.P. if
Chemical that stimulates
Chemical that stimulates
increase in water content of the blood (blood volume)
increase in B.P
released by Juxtagmerular (JG) apparatus of nephron
Decreased BP in Kidney → Secretion of Renin → converts Angiotensinogen to Angiotensin l → Carried to lungs → Angiotensin l converted to Angiotensin ll → stimulates secretion of Aldosterone (increased blood volume, increase in sodium in kidneys) and Vasoconstriction --> increase in BP
inflammatory agents act as vasodilators
a vein carries blood to a second capillary bed rather than back to the heart
allows the blood to transport materials directly from one organ to another without passing through the heart.
2 in humans
hypophyseal portal system
hepatic portal system
conducts factors from the hypothalamus to the pituitary
conducts nutrients from the capillaries of the gut tube to the liver (blood can processed by the liver before it passes on to supply the cells of the body)
maintains constant glucose and nutrient levels in the blood to prevent if from rising dramatically after eating and falling during times of fasting.
Internal iliac arteries of the fetus
Placenta (through capillary beds exchanges gases and waste products with the mommy’s endometrium)
Umbilical vein divides upon entering fetus
Hepatic portal vein -- Liver -- heptic vein
Inferior Vena Cava
Foramen ovale -- Left Atrium -- Left Ventricle
Right ventricle -- Pulmonary artery -- Ductus arteriosus
former umbilical arteries that have close down after birth
from the groin areas along the internal body wall to the level of the umbilical scar.
of the liver
former umbilical vein after it becomes fibrous
These structures are delivered as the “afterbirth”
opening between the right and left atria
Foramen ovale represented in the adult heart as a shallow depression in the right atrial
patent foramen ovale
If Foramen ovale does not close after birth
usually requires surgery at some point in life to correct the defect
The urgency of the surgical intervention depends upon the size of the opening that remains allowing blood to flow between the two atria.
The connection between the pulmonary artery and the aorta
Functions of The Lymphatic System
Lymph Capillaries –
Venous System ?
Spleen - "the bloods lymph node" -- "plan B"
Thymus - stimulates WBC production
CO2 + H2O → H2CO3 → H+ + HCO3 reaction is driven to the right
increase in hydrogen ions
drop in pH
Holding one’s breath
CO2 + H2O → H2CO3 → H+ + HCO3 the reaction is driven to the left
hydrogen ion concentration drops
draw air into the lungs due to the decrease in intrathoracic pressure
draw blood from the veins into the right atrium.
the mechanical action of drawing air into the lungs and forcing air back out of the lungs.
allows air to enter the nasal cavity
the air filled spaces within the:
a. Frontal bone (eye brows)
b. Sphenoid bone (behind eyes)
c. Ethmoid bone (between eyes)
d. Maxilla (below eye)
Warming the air
Filtering the air- mucus and hairs
Humidifying the air
Reducing the weight of the skull
Provides resonance for the voice
Sense of smell
the region from the uvula of the soft palate (the drop shaped extension of the soft palate) to the nasal cavity above the hard palate
contains the opening of the Eustachian tubes and the pharyngeal tonsils
- the region from the soft palate to the hyoid bone (the hyoid bone lies just superior to the thyroid cartilage of the larynx)
the region from the hyoid bone extending to the opening of the esophagus
the cartilage flap that covers the glottis during swallowing
the opening into the larynx
the most superior portion of the trachea
the vocal cords- it is composed of cartilage,
thyroid cartilage (Adam’s apple)
the open end directed dorsally
allows the esophagus to expand into the trachea during swallowing.
- the cartilage supported air passageways that branch from the trachea
the right branch is more vertical, shorter, and wider than the left most object
aspirated will enter the right bronchus.
numbers match the lobes associated with the right and left lungs
not supported by cartilage (different from rest of lung)
constriction and dilation regulate the flow of air into the alveoli of the
asthma attacks- lungs spasm of the smooth muscle of bronchioles
the microscopic air sacs
only place where gas exchange occurs
dead air space- air in all other areas of the respiratory tract constitutes
simple squamous epithelium
septal cells that secrete surfactant
connect alveolar and capillary walls
simple squamous epithelium of the blood vessel
thinnest possible tissue structures
if disease thickens of the membrane, the efficiency of gas exchange reduces
exchange is via simple diffusion.