-Excretion (removal of metabolic wastes)
-Control fluid volume in blood
-Electrolyte Balance (OH-, H+, Cl-, Na2+, ...)
-Control of Blood Cell Formation
-Regulation of Blood Pressure
Be able to trace the flow of the production of urine, through the urinary structures, to the point of exit from the body.
Kidney --> Renal Pelvis --> Ureters --> Urinary Bladder --> Urethra --> Out
How is urine moved through the ureters?
How is urine prevented from backflowing from the bladder to the ureters?
Why are kidney stones so painful when they pass?
How much urine is the bladder able to hold?
What is the "trigone" and why is it clinically important?
What occurs during the process of "micturition," or voiding?
What is the smooth muscle of the bladder called?
Why is a woman more likely than a man to get cystitis (bladder infection)?
What are the names of the 2 sphincter muscles of the urethra?
Which of the 2 sphincter muscles of the urethra is under voluntary control and which is under involuntary control?
Which blood vessels supplies blood to the kidney?
What is the glomerulus?
What is the functional subunit of the kidney?
What is the main function of the renal corpuscle?
Which two structures form the renal corpuscle?
The DCT joins up with the afferent arteriole to form what important structure?
What chemical is produced by the kidneys that is responsible for red blood cell formation?
What chemical is produced by the kidneys that is responsible for raising the blood pressure?
What are the 3 main processes of urine formation?
The renin - angiotensin cascade causes the release of which hormone from the adrenal gland?
Renin->Angiotensin I-> Angiotensin II-> aldosterone (adrenal gland)-> H2O re-absorbed in kidneys-> Elevates blood pressure