Arabs and Jews see themselves as his descendants. Father of Ishmael and Isaac. Ishmael was the figurehead of Islam. Isaac for the Jews. When 3500 years ago .Where: Modern day Israel. Why Made Covenant with God.
After Muhammad died in 632 there was a divide over who was to be his Caliph (successor). The Shiites believed the Caliph should be his relative Ali, however Abu Bakr became the Caliph so the Shiites make up the smaller portion within the Islamic religion. The Sunnies demolished the Shiites in battle in Karbala, fighting to the death became a major part of their religion.
Largest group, believed Abu Baker should be the Caliph
? (1838 ? 1842) Fought because of British concern over Russia?s long-term interests in Afghanistan. This conflict grew out of a British apprehension over Russian involvement in Persia?s siege of Heart during 1837-1838. When the Persians lifted the siege and retired from the battlefield they invaded Afghanistan. The First Anglo-Afghan War is famous for the crushing of the British Army and the Indus on its ill-fated retreat from Kabul during January 1842 by, primarily and Ghilzai Pushtuns. Out of the 16,000 soldiers and camp followers only one Englishman made it out alive.
(July 1915-March 1916) McMahon suggests that if they join the entonte against the Turks then as a reward the British would help the Arabs to have an independent State
(May 1916) The British (Sykes) and the French (Picot) determining land negotiations that violated the Hussein- McMahon Correspondence
(1917) Europeans believed this would compensate for Anti-Semitic feelings toward the Jews that had been inflicted by the Christians, a Jewish homeland would protect the Suez Canal and persuade Jews to side with England during war.
(August 28, 1919) These two men traveled throughout the middle east and met with leaders of countries. Found that these people hated the French, disliked the British due to treatment of Egypt but they accepted the mandate under America. Active invitation for America to lead Armania
nationalist group of the zionist moment. Founded 1925 and led by Vladmir Jabonisky never accepted what they called the first partition of Palestine. Demanded a Jewish state not just a homeland on both sides of the Jordan River. The Revisionists realized that their goals were inconsistent with those of the Arabs.
Retaliated against Arab maranders. Military arm of Revisionist Zionists started by Jabonisky in 1931. Stopped in 1940 and resumed in 1942 when Begin took over the Irgun after the death of Jabonitky.
In November 1947 the UN decides by one vote that Palestine was to be divided between the Zionists and the Arabs. The Zionists received a slightly larger half. The shape was chosen by where Jewish settlements were already set up.
Significance: This was the third document that created Israel.
Arabs and Palestinians lament, Jews rejoice
war in the Middle East was counter productive. Central reason for the war was the ownership of land. The Allies were brought together by Nasser?s hand in the Suez Canal. After the war Nasser has MORE power, The U.S. did not help the Allies this time. Israelis wanted access to Suez Canal. Low point in U.S.-Israeli relations. 1956, Oct & Nov. Nasser (Egypt) nationalized the Suez Canal infuriating Britain, France and Israel. On October 29, 1956, Israel made a paratroop drop deep into central Sinai and surprised the Egyptians. The Egyptians responded and a full-scale war erupted in the Sinai. The British reminded Egypt of the British right to intervene if Egypt were attacked by a third power. They announced that a combined British and French force would land to secure uninterrupted navigation of the Suez Canal. Israel conquered the entire Sinai all the way to the Suez Canal and had taken control of the Egyptian positions at Sharm al-Shekhh overlooking the Strait of Tiran. Britain and France were discredited by the war throughout the Arab world. Egypt won politically and emerged as the hero of the hour and as the symbol of pan-Arabism and its valiant stand against imperialism.
President of Eygept in 1954, nationalized the Suez Canal. One of his primary goals was the removal of western influence in the Middle East. War of Attrition was Israel against Egypt. During this war Nasser believed he could get the Israelis to retreat back from Egyptian land or they would be more willing to do what Egypt wants. January 1970 Nasser went to Moscow to ask for weapons, he gained more support but not weapons.
Set up by the Fatah party led by Yasir Arafat, kidnapped and killed 11 Israeli Olympic Athletes in 1972. Policy was that an arms struggle is the only way to liberate Palestine.
May 1967 ? Nasser told the UN to leave the canals. UN an only be accepted if they are wanted by they cannot stay if a party wants them to leave. Replaced by Egyptian forces and occupied ports and water. Israel said this is an act of war and responded as such.
June 5, 1967 ? Israel launched attack on Egypt. Perfectly executed. Israel used their air force from France and flew out into to the Mediterranean and attacked Egypt from the side. Advantage of controlling the sky. On the ground the Israelis launched an attack through the Sinai peninsula. Total disaster for Egypt.
Israel more than tripled their territory. Fulfillment of Zionist and religious goals. Israel was in possession of oil. Man power addition in West bank for laborers building boom follows. This a defining event which echoes to he present. Arabs were humiliated, world believed they deserved this defeat.
Withdrawal of Israeli armed forces from territories occupied in the recent conflict. Omitted the article ?the? that had been in the draft resolution. Resolution doesn?t say ?the? territories and interprets it as some territories, not all territories.
Succeeded Nasser as the third president of Egypt from 1970-1981. He was determined to win back the last territory from the Israelis; no matter what the cost.
(1967 -1973) ? Egypt prepped by asking Soviets to leave and improving their military. This war recovered Arab respect and self-respect. This was a teasing to Israel which was very expensive. This lulled Israel into a false sense of security. Jordan was not involved. Syria was armed and ready to ally with Egypt. Syria?s major grievance against Israel was based on the Golan Heights. Egypt had a new air force!
October 6, 1973 ? the Egyptians were determined not to lose sky control so attack was both on ground and sky. Egypt built bridges a few inches below sea level. Israel had fortifications made of sand dunes. Egypt washed the sand dunes away with water pumps. Israel lost significant territories in Sinai and Israel, for the first time, expressed defeat. It was saved by U.S. military technology. In the end, the Yom Kippor war was a victory for both sides. Ariel Sharon- given credit for counter attack. Brought Soviet Union and U.S. almost to war!
political and religious leader of Muslim tribes of the Northern Caucasus. Leader of anti-Russian resistance in the Caucasian War and the third Imam of the Caucasian Imamate (1834 -1859). Shamil took Hadji Murad?s place as the premier leader of the Caucasian resistance and the third Imam of the Caucasian Imamate. This war lasted eighty days, resulting finally in a Russian victory The Russians suffered about 3000 casualties in taking the stronghold, while the rebels were almost entirely slaughtered after extremely bitter fighting were typical of the war. Shamil was effective at uniting the Caucasian tribes to fight against the Russians. He used guerrilla warfare tactics and the rsistance continued under his leadership until 1859.
President of the United Sates in 1977. He had great faith in his mediating abilities. Talked to Sadat about normalization of relation between Egypt and Israel. March 1977, Carter endorses Palestinian homeland. July 12 1977, Palestinian entity should be tied in with Jordan and not be independent. Sadat, four days later, said that he would accept Israel as a Middle East nation after the signing of a peace treaty. August 1978 Camp David Occurred.
1978) Retreat, place away from Washington. Eisenhower created it! NOT MILITARY!! Negotiated by Israel and Egypt. Basis was Resolution 212/ issues were sovereignty and security government on West Bank and Gaza strip. Israeli-Egyptian peace ? land for peace. Mandate Border: separated the Palestinian mandate and Egypt. Meaning that the Gaza Strip (once Egypt?s) would remain under Israel. 1967 Border (minus Gaza Strip) now Israeli territory. Withdrew armed forces from Sinai Peninsula, including oil rigs. Israeli settlements (right winged) had to move and then resent Begin (also right winged). Gives us a hint as to how settles in the West Bank would respond. U.S inserted troops into the Sinai Peninsula to keep the peace. They would know immediately if lines were crossed. Relations between Egypt and Israel are not friendly but normalized, end of boycotts. Two accords were signed September 17, 1978.
July 1981, Israel suspected Iraq of building a nuclear weapon and bombed Osirak (believed to be the place of manufacturing), south of Baghdad.
Labor party elected him as Prime Minister of Israel in 1974 because he had been the Chief of state during the six day war and ambassador with the United States. Met with Kissinger in Washington and agreed to sign a new Sinai Peace Accord. On September 4, 1975 the agreement was signed by Israel and Egypt including UN monitored buffing zone and station of U.N. personnel.
Made Iraq and Iran more radical in the 90s. Made demands on his neighbors, forgiveness of loans and was very strong militarily. Demanded that oil prices be stabilized and that neighbors rebuild infrastructure. 1990 the first golf war invaded Kuwait
Violence in the West Bank and Gaza increased throughout 1986 and 1987. By the mid-1980s an entire generation of Palestinian youth had grown up under Israeli occupation. The resistance was unorganized, but Palestinian frustration would soon explode into a full-fledged uprising. On December 9 , 1987, an Israeli vehicle plowed into a line of oncoming cars in Gaza, killing four Palestinians and wounding seven others. This tragic accident lit the fuse that resulted in the Intifada or ?shaking off?, the spontaneous popular uprising in the territories that soon came to dominate the world?s attention. During the next year, more than 150 Palestinians were killed and many more arrested; more than 11,500 were wounded. During the first six weeks of the Intifada, 38 Palestinians were shot and killed by the Israel Defense Forces. Israel?s response was deemed by the world to be too harsh, and the Jewish state was widely criticized, even by Jews in the United States.
Settlements are illegal and they exist even though they shouldn?t. Making wall around the territory. The land is suppose to be for the Arabs.
1979) Soviet Union would help any country whose communist government was in danger of being over thrown. When indigenous communist effort in Afghanistan
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan ? (1979) Collagpse of Soviet Union. Afghanistan caused the Soviet Union to evolve according to the Brezhnev Doctrine. Persuaded the new leadership in 1985 (gorbechev). Turned from old governing system to carry out reforms to strengthen the Soviet Union. Before him the leadership was made of very old leaders. As he reformed the Soviet Union and as Afghanistan continued to cause a large number ofcasualites, the Soviet Union pulled out of Afghanistant in 1989. This changed the control economy of the Soviet Union, greater freedom, more openness in academic community. Increasing demandsof Russian territories. Challenging the totalitarian system. All this lead to he collapse of the Soviet union in 1991.
fighting a communist government, mujahidee means holy fighters
Students? Filled the vacuum left by the lack of Soviet Union occupation. Encouraged by the retreat of the ?God-less power: they began to seek other outside influences. Destruction of statues
As a child, he turned to Chechyna. Entered military as a pilot. By 1980s he was a general in an air force unit where he controlled bombers stationed in a Russian base. Had some contact with civilians and learned about Estonia and that he was a victim of Soviet empowerment. When he was ordered to do his job he sympathized with Estonias. Chechens discussed past and future, demanding justice from Soviet Union. Clash of forces
? Saddam Hussein repressed Shiite and Kurdish rebellions within Iraq, which erupted as the Gulf War ended. Hundreds of thousands of Kurdish refugees fought starvation, bitter cold, and disease as they fled Saddam?s revenge through the mountains of northern and eastern Iraq to seek safety in Turkey and Iran. In the following months, mounting international concern resulted in the UN, backed by Washington, trying to help protect those populations by creating two no-fly zones in Iraq.
created by the Islamic state of Afghanistan in 1996. The organization united various Afghan groups fighting against each other to fight the Taliban instead.