In personality psychology, thenotion that reality is a construct, that every person and culture has its ownunique version of reality, and that no single version of reality is more validor more privileged than another.
Personality characteristics of others influence whether we select them as dates, friends, or marriage partners.
An average difference betweenwomen and men on certain characteristics such as height, body fat distribution,or personality characteristics, with no prejudgment about the cause of thedifference.
Rated in D-statistic or effect size.
The notion that boys and girlsbecome different because boys are reinforced by parents, teachers, and themedia for being "masculine," and girls for being"feminine." This is probably the most widely held theory of sexdifferences in personality.
According to social roletheory, sex differences originate because men and women are distributeddifferentially into occupational and family roles. Men, for example, areexpected to assume the breadwinning role. Women are expected to assume thehousewife role. Over time, children presumably learn the behaviors that arelinked to these roles.
The subjective feeling that isproduced by uncontrollable and threatening events.
Objective events happen to aperson, but personality factors determine the impact of those events byinfluencing the person's ability to cope. This is called the interactionalmodel because personality is assumed to moderate (that is, influence) therelation between stress and illness.
In the transactional model ofpersonality and health, personality has three potential effects: (1) it caninfluence coping, as in the interactional model; (2) it can influence how theperson appraises or interprets the events; and (3) it can influence exposure tothe events themselves.
Personality does not directlyinfluence the relation between stress and illness. Instead, personality affectshealth indirectly, through health-promoting or health-degrading behaviors. Thismodel suggests that personality influences the degree to which a person engagesin various health-promoting or health-demoting behaviors.
In health psychology, thepredisposition model suggests that associations may exist between personalityand illness because a third variable is causing them both.
Personality influences thedegree to which a person perceives and pays attention to bodily sensations, andthe degree to which a person will interpret and label those sensations as anillness.
The first stage in Selye'sgeneral adaptation syndrome (GAS). This stage consists of theflight-or-fight response of the sympathetic nervous system and the associatedperipheral nervous system reactions. These include the release of hormones,which prepare our bodies for challenge.
The second stage in Selye's general adaptation syndrome (GAS).Here the body is using its resources at an above-average rate, even though theimmediate fight-or-flight response has subsided. Stress is being resisted, butthe effort is making demands on the person's resources and energy.
The third stage in Selye'sgeneral adaptation syndrome (GAS). Selye felt that this was the stage where weare most susceptible to illness and disease, as our physiological resources aredepleted.
According to Holmes and Rahe, these require that people make major adjustments in their lives.Death or loss of a spouse through divorce or separation are the most stressfulevents, followed closely by being jailed, losing a close family member indeath, or being severely injured.
The major sources of stress inmost people's lives. Although minor, they can be chronic andrepetitive, such as having too much to do all the time, having to fight thecrowds while shopping, or having to worry over money. They can bechronically irritating though they do not initiate the same general adaptationsyndrome evoked by some major life events.
Results from the sudden onsetof demands or events that seem to be beyond the control of the individual. Thistype of stress is often experienced as tension headaches, emotional upsets,gastrointestinal disturbances, and feelings of agitation and pressure.
A massive instance of acutestress, the effects of which can reverberate within an individual for years oreven a lifetime. It differs from acute stress mainly in terms of its potentialto lead to posttraumatic stress disorder.
The effects of different kindsof stress that add up and accumulate in a person over time.
According to Lazarus, in orderfor stress to be evoked for a person, two cognitive events must occur. Thissecond necessary cognitive event is when theperson concludes that he or she does not have the resources to cope with thedemands of the threatening event.
Suppression of emotionalexpressions; often thought of as a trait (e. g. , some people chronicallysuppress their emotions).
A tendency to respond toeveryday frustrations with anger and aggression, to become irritable easily, tofeel frequent resentment, and to act in a rude, critical, antagonistic, anduncooperative manner in everyday interactions (Dembrowski & Costa, 1987). This is a subtrait in the Type A behavior pattern.