Final exam - Chapters 12, 15, 16 & 18
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2. Interpretation - Process of making sense of, or explaining events in the world.
3. Conscious Goals - Standards and goals people develop for evaluating themselves and others.
*fourth on notes - Intelligence.
Measure used to assess field-dependence.
Embedded Figures Test (EFT)
Interpersonal relations - Field independent people are more inter-personally detached, whereas field dependent people are attentive to social cues, oriented toward other people.
Field independent students - Learn more effectively than field dependent students in hypermedia-based instructional environments.
Personal constructs - Constructs person uses to interpret and predict events.
Commonality corollary - If 2 people have similar construct systems, they'll be psychologically similar.
Sociality corollary - To understand a person, must understand how they construe the world.
Anxiety - Not being able to understand and predict life events.
In personality psychology, thenotion that reality is a construct, that every person and culture has its ownunique version of reality, and that no single version of reality is more validor more privileged than another.
External - Generalized expectancies that events are outside of one's control.
Internal - Generalized expectancies that reinforcing events are under one's control, and that one is responsible for major life outcomes.
Three broad categories of attributions
- External or Internal
- Stable or Unstable
- Global or Specific
Associated with feelings of helplessness and poor adjustment
Explanatory Style is stable over time.
Emphasizes the "doing" of personality over the trait approach's "having" of personality.
Achievement vs aptitude views of intelligence.
"g" or general intelligence vs domain specific intelligence.
*Domain specific better when you need a very specific task
- Therefore what is defined as "intelligence" can be different across cultures.
- But, Western culture is influencing nearly all other cultures, so this may mean the Western definition of intelligence will be dominant throughout the world.
- Awareness of our feelings and bodily signals, identifying our own emotions, and make distinctions
- Ability to regulate emotions, especially negative ones, and to manage stress.
- Ability to control our impulse's, delay gratification, and stay on task for goals.
- Ability to decode social and emotional cues of others, empathy.
- Ability to influence and guide others without anger, resentment.
Personality characteristics of others influence whether we select them as dates, friends, or marriage partners.
Correlations are consistently positive between spouses are due, in part, to direct social preferences, based on personality characteristics of those doing the selection.
Almost as important are personality characteristics of dependable character, emotional stability, pleasing & disposition.
Partner's personality had a large effect on marital satisfaction.
People are especially happy if they are married to partners high on agreeableness, emotional stability, and openness.
More likely to divorce when mate is not dependable and emotionally stable.
More likely to breakup when they fail to get a mate that is similar.
During adolescence and early adulthood, shy people tend to avoid social situations, resulting in a form of isolation.
Shy women are less likely to go a gynecologist and are less likely to bring up contraception with potential partner.
Shyness affects whether a person is willing to select risky situations in the form of gambles.
Essentially, people who areaggressive expect that others will be hostile toward them.
Thus, hostility from others is evoked by an aggressive person.
Includes ways in which people intentionally alter, change, or exploit others.
High on Mach people select for situations that are loosely structured or untethered in order to deploy exploitative strategies.
High Mach evoke specific reactions from others, such as anger and retaliation for having been exploited.
High Mach influence or manipulate others in predictable ways, using tactics that are exploitative, self-serving, and deceptive.
An average difference betweenwomen and men on certain characteristics such as height, body fat distribution,or personality characteristics, with no prejudgment about the cause of thedifference.
Rated in D-statistic or effect size.
- Worried about finding differences to support agendas or status quo.
- Might just reinforce stereotypes rather than real differences.
- Might just reflect biases rather than objective reality.
- Might conflict with ideas of egalitarianism.
BUT - need to come to terms with real differences that do exist.
Set off avalanche of studies on sex differences.
Presented informal summary of research, subsequent researchers used meta-analysis to assess sex differences across many studies.
Small = .20 Medium = .50 Large = .80
Positive of D = Male, negative = female
Even large effect size don't necessarily have implications for any one individual.
Argue that the size of sex differences should not be trivialized - small effects can have important consequences.
Young children 7-10 d=.16
Children 11-14 d=.23
Children 15-18 d=.33
Adulthood 19-22 d=.18
Adulthood 23-59 d=.10
The notion that boys and girlsbecome different because boys are reinforced by parents, teachers, and themedia for being "masculine," and girls for being"feminine." This is probably the most widely held theory of sexdifferences in personality.
Boys and girls learn by observing behaviors of same-sex others.
According to social roletheory, sex differences originate because men and women are distributeddifferentially into occupational and family roles. Men, for example, areexpected to assume the breadwinning role. Women are expected to assume thehousewife role. Over time, children presumably learn the behaviors that arelinked to these roles.
Research supports many predicted sex differences, especially in sexuality.
Problem: No clear accounting of individual and within-sex differences.
The subjective feeling that isproduced by uncontrollable and threatening events.
Objective events happen to aperson, but personality factors determine the impact of those events byinfluencing the person's ability to cope. This is called the interactionalmodel because personality is assumed to moderate (that is, influence) therelation between stress and illness.
In the transactional model ofpersonality and health, personality has three potential effects: (1) it caninfluence coping, as in the interactional model; (2) it can influence how theperson appraises or interprets the events; and (3) it can influence exposure tothe events themselves.
Personality does not directlyinfluence the relation between stress and illness. Instead, personality affectshealth indirectly, through health-promoting or health-degrading behaviors. Thismodel suggests that personality influences the degree to which a person engagesin various health-promoting or health-demoting behaviors.
In health psychology, thepredisposition model suggests that associations may exist between personalityand illness because a third variable is causing them both.
Personality influences thedegree to which a person perceives and pays attention to bodily sensations, andthe degree to which a person will interpret and label those sensations as anillness.
- When astressor first appears, people experience the alarm stage.
- If the stressorcontinues, the stage of resistance begins.
- If the stressor remains constant,the person eventually enters the third stage, the stage of exhaustion.
The first stage in Selye'sgeneral adaptation syndrome (GAS). This stage consists of theflight-or-fight response of the sympathetic nervous system and the associatedperipheral nervous system reactions. These include the release of hormones,which prepare our bodies for challenge.
The second stage in Selye's general adaptation syndrome (GAS).Here the body is using its resources at an above-average rate, even though theimmediate fight-or-flight response has subsided. Stress is being resisted, butthe effort is making demands on the person's resources and energy.
The third stage in Selye'sgeneral adaptation syndrome (GAS). Selye felt that this was the stage where weare most susceptible to illness and disease, as our physiological resources aredepleted.
According to Holmes and Rahe, these require that people make major adjustments in their lives.Death or loss of a spouse through divorce or separation are the most stressfulevents, followed closely by being jailed, losing a close family member indeath, or being severely injured.
The major sources of stress inmost people's lives. Although minor, they can be chronic andrepetitive, such as having too much to do all the time, having to fight thecrowds while shopping, or having to worry over money. They can bechronically irritating though they do not initiate the same general adaptationsyndrome evoked by some major life events.
Results from the sudden onsetof demands or events that seem to be beyond the control of the individual. Thistype of stress is often experienced as tension headaches, emotional upsets,gastrointestinal disturbances, and feelings of agitation and pressure.
A massive instance of acutestress, the effects of which can reverberate within an individual for years oreven a lifetime. It differs from acute stress mainly in terms of its potentialto lead to posttraumatic stress disorder.
These symptoms can besevere and last long enough to significantly impair the individual's dailylife, health, relationships, and career.
The effects of different kindsof stress that add up and accumulate in a person over time.
According to Lazarus, in orderfor stress to be evoked for a person, two cognitive events must occur. Thissecond necessary cognitive event is when theperson concludes that he or she does not have the resources to cope with thedemands of the threatening event.
Suppression of emotionalexpressions; often thought of as a trait (e. g. , some people chronicallysuppress their emotions).
A tendency to respond toeveryday frustrations with anger and aggression, to become irritable easily, tofeel frequent resentment, and to act in a rude, critical, antagonistic, anduncooperative manner in everyday interactions (Dembrowski & Costa, 1987). This is a subtrait in the Type A behavior pattern.
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