Agenda setting is important because it identifies the issues in which the public wishes to adress.
It also sets deadlines in dealing with the issues (Example: Can set budgets for certain issues to expire after a certain amount of time. Sunset Laws another example. These laws have expiration dates, forcing politicians to review the effectiveness of such laws.)
Difficulties: Interest groups intentionally bring attention away from, or towards issues. Example: Tobacco Company.
-Some issues get more attention than others.
-events such as emergencies or disasters make the law.
Difficulty: There are Biases:
1. In favor of the familiar. We don’t want to try drastic measures.
2. Not very many options are looked at closely.
This stage is important in that a choice is made on which solution will be used to address the issue set out by the agenda. The option of “doing nothing” is always a choice.
Also important in that cost and public reaction are taken into affect.
Difficulty: Uncertainty is caused by questions such as how much will it cost? Or what will be the public reaction?
Solution: Contingency planning (“what if” planning).
-Another difficulty is Goal Conflict. To solve goal conflict, must compromise.
Stage where the attempted solution is put into action. Bureaucrats draw up rules and regulations as to how the law will be put in place. Crucial point of policy making. How efficiently and effectively the policy is implemented determines the overall success.
Difficulties: Implmentiation is often lousy at first. It takes time to perfect the best ways to Implement. Performance is better with time.
-Another difficulty: Reaction of citizens affects the flow of implementation. Public reaction can either help progress along or slow it down.
Important stage where it is evaluated how well the policy worked. Feedback from a variety of courses is key in determining success. Feedback might come from the people whom the policy serves, bureaucrats who monitor the implementation, and pundits and reporters who care about the issue.
Incrementalists generally think that talking about goals and priorities creates too much conflict, and studying a wide range of proposals is likely to be too expensive and waste scarce resources, because many proposals are not politically acceptable, even if research says they would work. Incrementalists don't have much faith in research, anyway. They prefer to proceed in small steps and proceed further in directions that appear to work.
calls for officials to work out their priorities and goals, then search for a wide range of possible proposals. They should do considerable research (or have other people do it) on how effective each proposal is likely to be, and they should choose the best policy options (based on which proposals appear likely to achieve the most progress at the lowest cost).
Education, transportation, houseing, community developement, antipoverty
A lack educational expertise to become effective policy leaders. Also have other responsibilities (Job, family). FINANCING PUBLIC SCHOOLS, is funded by the state in form of property tax. This brings up FISCAL DISPARITIES between districts. Politicizing the Curriculum: controversy of Evolution vs. intelligent design.
Trend toward State Centralization due to federal initiatives on education has diminished local control over education. Represented by the falling number of local school districts. States forced them to consolidate because financing was lacking in small rural districts to keep schools modern. Local Govt still pays for a large portion of cost of education, however.
Federal influence increased with congressional and judicial mandates. Has played role in de-segregation and keeping parity for male and female athletic programs.
Efforts to raise student performance standards and teacher qualifications: (No child left behind)
COST OF ROAD MAINTENEANCE
MOTOR VEHICLE ACCIDENTS
main responosibility for contructing/maintaining intercity hwys.
-In addition to federal funds, pass their own taxes on motor fuel. Most of the time, fuel tax is earmarked, having to be spent on hwys.
plays huge role in creation of HWY system.
-1916: Bureau of Public Roads created, empowered to establish constructiuon standards, route directions.
More people are getting older faster and living longer.
Traditional relief systems were run and financed by local govt. This changed after the Great Depression. 1. Provide financial incentives for states to run a variety of welfare programs. 2. Establish minimum level of services/payments by states 3. As financial incentive provider, Feds dictate what problems will be tackled, and what programs will be used to tackle them. 4. Operates many programs itself, such as Medicare, Social Security.
Social Security: For when you retire, become disabled or die, you or beneficiaries reveive a monthly payment.