Your therapist is veryinterested in your dreams, blocked memories, and slips of the tongue. On whichapproach to psychology is your therapist probably basing his psychotherapy?
Dr. Jackson is studyingchanges in the brain after stressful experiences. Dr. Jackson is most likely tosubscribe to the _____ perspective.
Psychology is formallydefined as the scientific:
Dr. Ramen believes that,in order to effectively treat his clients' psychological disorders, it isessential to understand his clients' early life experiences. Dr. Ramen takesthe _____ perspective in psychological treatment.
The founder ofpsychoanalysis was:
People who engage incritical thinking:
Researchers at theAllied Mental Health Center are conducting a study to determine how quicklysymptoms of depression are reduced by different forms of psychotherapy. What isthe independent variable in this study?
The action potential isbest defined as:
How does cocaine achieveits effects?
During the war in Iraq,some U.S. troops carried atropine injection kits as an antidote to nerve gas.How does the drug atropine counteract nerve gas?
The branch of psychologythat is focused on understanding the internal physical events and processesthat correspond with our experiences and behavior is called:
The cell body of aneuron:
The action potential isproduced by the:
The main link betweenthe nervous system and the endocrine system is the:
The _____ is a networkof neurons at the base of the brain that projects signals up to higher brainregions and down to the spinal cord, and regulates attention and sleep.
The neurotransmittercalled acetylcholine:
The hippocampus plays akey role in:
As you walk into anIndian restaurant, you immediately notice the delicious odors of curry,saffron, and other spices. After a few minutes, however, you no longer noticethe smell. This experience is an example of:
Looking out the window,you perceive a tree in front of a car. Even though the tree interrupts yourvisual image of the car, you still perceive the car to be a solid shape, notsplit where the tree blocks your view of it. This is an example of the:
Jenny is looking at apicture in a newspaper and recognizes the person in the picture as her ex-boyfriend.What perceptual processing is she using?
In contrast tosensation, the term perception is formally defined as the:
The ability toaccurately gauge the distance of the coffee cup on your desk as you reach forit is called:
The “carpentered-worldhypothesis” refers to the fact that:
The idea that peopleliving in urban, industrialized environments have a great deal of perceptualexperience in judging lines, corners, edges, and other rectangular,manufactured objects, and consequently are more susceptible to the Müller-Lyerillusions is referred to as:
Because of the law of_____, you perceive the following as three groups of dots.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
In response to brightmorning light:
Which of the followingstatements best explains why consciousness has been viewed as a “stream” or“river”?
A sleep disordercharacterized by overwhelming bouts of excessive daytime sleepiness and briefuncontrollable episodes of sleep is called:
Tremaine complains aboutthe quality or duration of his sleep, that he has difficulty going to sleep andstaying asleep, and that he frequently wakes before it is time to get up.Tremaine has:
According to scientificresearch, hypnosis has NOT been shown to be effective in:
According to theCritical Thinking Box on explanations of hypnosis, what evidence seems toundermine the notion that hypnosis involves dissociation and is a special stateof consciousness?
After turning out thelight for the night, your head hits the pillow. Gradually, your muscles relaxand drowsiness occurs. This drowsy yet wakeful state is associated with _____brain waves.
Somnambulism is alsocalled:
Chemical substances thatcan alter arousal, mood, thinking, sensation, and perception are called:
The presence of sleepspindles and K complexes are the defining characteristics of:
Punishment is mosteffective if:
it consistently follows the operant.
Anthony is studying forhis final exam the next day, but a friend calls and invites him to a party.Anthony really wants to go to the party, but he also needs a good grade on hisfinal in order to maintain his standing on the Dean's Honor Roll and increasehis chances of getting into medical school. Instead of thinking about how muchfun the party will be, Anthony instead visualizes himself as a doctor, treatingpatients and performing surgery. What self-control strategy is Anthony using?
Skinner coined the termoperant to describe:
In his original studiesof digestion, Pavlov placed food on a dog's tongue to make the dog salivate. Inthis situation, the dog's salivating was a:
Which of the followingpsychologists has conducted extensive research on observational learning?
Andrew works for NASAand gets paid once a month, whereas his friend George works at a fast-foodrestaurant and gets paid once a week. Despite the difference in when they arepaid, both are paid on a _____ schedule of reinforcement.
Ever since she foolishlydrank too much beer at a rock concert and vomited all over her boyfriend,Sharon becomes nauseous at the smell or taste of beer. In this example, theconditioned stimulus is _____ and the conditioned response is _____.
According to the workingmemory model developed by British psychologist Alan Baddeley, the “centralexecutive” is:
the conscious part of your mind that activelyintegrates verbal information, visual and spatial information, and informationfrom long-term memory.
Which of the followingfactors contributes to “imagination inflation?”
Which of the followingis NOT one of the key brain structures involved in encoding and storingmemories?
This multiple-choicetest question is a good example of using _____ to test long-term memory.
Identify thepsychologist who is a leading expert in the field of memory research andeyewitness testimony.
“Okay, your recital isnext Saturday night,” Candy reminded her piano student. “You're doing great butfor the next couple of days, I want you to practice by starting with the middlethird of the piece until you've got it down perfectly.” As a piano teacher,Candy is trying to help her student counteract which of the following memorytendencies?
Brandon vividlyremembers when he had to go to the emergency room for stitches on his leftthigh. This is an example of which type of long-term memory?
Forgetting that iscaused by “encoding failure” means that the information:
It was _____ who said,“Psychological studies have shown that it is virtually impossible to tell thedifference between a real memory and one that is a product of imagination orsome other process. Our job as researchers in this area is to understand how itis that pieces of experience are combined to produce what we experience as'memory.'”
The term used todescribe the mental activities involved in acquiring, retaining, and usingknowledge is:
Functional fixedness isdefined as:
When a test has theability to measure what it is intended to measure, it is said to be:
On the WAIS, the _____score represents subtest scores on verbal tasks, such as vocabulary,comprehension, and general knowledge; the _____ score represents subtest scoreson nonverbal tasks, such as identifying missing parts in incomplete pictures,arranging pictures to tell a story, or arranging blocks to match a pattern.
Approximately two-thirds(68 percent) of all scores on the WAIS fall between _____ and _____, a rangethat is considered to indicate normal or average intelligence.
On Wechsler's WAIS intelligencetest, the _____ is calculated by comparing an individual's overall score to thescores of others in the same general age group whose average score wasstatistically fixed at 100.
Our memories ofindividual instances of a particular concept are called:
Kahal has veryconservative political beliefs, and he prefers listening to radio talk showsand reading magazines that are consistent with his views. Kahal's tendency tosearch only for information and evidence that support his perspectiveillustrates the:
Brian's car was notrunning well. The car would occasionally lose power or stall out. Brian thoughtabout the possible solutions: changing the ignition wires, putting an additivein the gas tank, or taking his car to a mechanic and letting the mechanicfigure out the problem. Brian decided that he would try putting an additive inthe gas tank first to see if that corrected the problem. Which one ofSternberg's intelligences does it sound like Brian was using?
According to AlbertBandura, the most effective way to strengthen your sense of self-efficacy isthrough:
As the date of the statechampionships drew closer, Evan worked harder and longer in practice. Evan wasdemonstrating which characteristic of motivation?
Which brain structure isactivated when people view threatening or fearful faces?
The view that people aremotivated to maintain an optimal level of arousal that is neither too high nortoo low is called:
Although Hunter keepsfalling when he tries to learn to ice skate, he keeps working at being a betterskater so he can play ice hockey. Hunter is demonstrating the motivationcharacteristic of:
Anthony decides to startrunning every morning before his first college class. He buys running clothesand some expensive athletic shoes, yet never quite makes it to the runningpath. What strategies could help Anthony achieve his goal?
Which of the followingis a criticism of instinct theories of motivation?
Sarah is determined toplay the role of Clara in the ballet, “The Nutcracker.” She begins to work veryhard in ballet classes with this goal in mind. Sarah is demonstrating whichcharacteristic of motivation?
After a ride on the veryfrightening roller coaster with Helga, Manfred's heart was beating fast, hishands were sweating, and his knees were trembling. He looked at Helga andconcluded that he must be falling in love with her. Manfred's emotionalexperience can best be explained by the:
The theory that emotionsarise from the perception and interpretation of bodily changes is called the_____ theory of emotion.
The results of Schachterand Singer's experiment in which participants were injected with epinephrinejust before spending time in either a “happy” condition or an “angry” conditionsupport the idea that:
Emotionally, how do menand women differ?
The view that behavioris motivated by the pull of external goals, such as rewards, is suggested by:
_____ theories ofmotivation claim that behavior is motivated by the desire to reduce internaltension caused by unmet biological needs.
According toneuroscientist Joseph LeDoux, the direct thalamus→amygdala pathway produces a_____ emotional response to _____.
Compared toearly-maturing girls, early-maturing boys:
Elizabeth is a healthy75-year-old woman whose husband died over a year ago. What is the biggestproblem that Elizabeth will probably face in trying to form a new relationshipwith a male in her age range?
In homes where bothparents are present and have a close relationship to their infant, the infanttends to develop an attachment relationship to:
Despite the fact thatCrystal is doing above average work in fourth grade, her father tells her thather grades are unsatisfactory and that she is not working hard enough.According to Erikson's theory, Crystal is likely to develop a pervasive senseof:
According to the Focuson Neuroscience box, which area(s) of the brain is(are) the LAST to reachmaturity?
According to ErikErikson, the psychosocial conflict faced in old age is:
Twelve-year-old Andreahas been wearing a bra for over a year. She had her first menstrual period whenshe was 10 years old and is taller than most of her classmates. Compared tolate-maturing girls, Andrea is likely to have had:
As Tim was swinging histoy hammer, the hammer flew out of his hand and landed behind the couch and outof view. Rather than look for it, Tim acted as though the hammer no longerexisted. Tim's behavior suggests that he is in the _____ of cognitivedevelopment.
Ever since she was a fewweeks old, Shelly has been an unusually contented baby who slept and ate welland adapted easily to new experiences. A developmental psychologist wouldprobably describe Shelly's temperament as being:
In Piaget's theory, theterm irreversibility refers to the:
The zone of proximaldevelopment is an important element in:
Conrad has written anovel about a fictional island where most men are in charge of cooking,cleaning, and child care, while most women handle all the fighting, hunting,and fishing. On this island, the belief that women are fiercer and moreaggressive than men would be the typical:
In comparing theincidence of homosexuality – either male or female – among pairs of identicaltwins, fraternal twins, and adoptive siblings, the research seems to indicatethat:
Mark was upset becausehe only got half a sandwich while his older sister got two halves of asandwich. After his mother cut his half sandwich into two pieces, Mark wasperfectly happy. Mark is probably in the _____ stage of cognitive development.
Angela remembers a dreamin which she boarded a train that entered a dark tunnel. According to SigmundFreud's theory, the dream images that Angela remembers, such as the train andthe tunnel, are called the _____ content.
In psychoanalyst KarenHorney's view, people who move “against” others have a strong need for:
A trait is formallydefined as a:
Carl Rogers's theory ofpersonality and humanistic psychology has been criticized for:
At day care, 3-year-oldSara has learned that she has to wait her turn to ride on the tricycle ratherthan push another child off the tricycle. Using Freud's terminology, Sara'sability to postpone gratification in a socially acceptable way is a reflectionof her:
Your sense of consciencecorresponds to which component of personality in Freud's theory?
According to Eysenck'stheory, _____ tend to seek out stimulating environments, while _____ tend toavoid stimulating environments.
Social cognitive theoriststend to believe that people are:
Which approach topersonality focuses primarily on describing individual differences?
Which of the followingis NOT one of the three levels of awareness in Freud's theory?
Which of the followingapproaches have been criticized for being based on concepts that cannot beoperationally defined and empirically tested?
Psychoanalyst KarenHorney described _____ as “the feeling that a child has of being isolated andhelpless in a potentially hostile world.”
According to Freud, thebasic goals of the id are to:
Alyssa is a quiet,rather shy young woman who lives at home while attending college. She wouldrather meet an old friend for coffee than meet new people or go to parties. Interms of Hans Eysenck's model of personality, Alyssa appears to rate high onthe trait of:
The _____ perspective onpersonality emphasizes conscious thought processes, self-regulation, and theimportance of situational influences.
According to AlfredAdler, feelings of _____ are universal during infancy and childhood.
When people experiencean unpleasant state of psychological tension resulting from two inconsistentthoughts or perceptions, they are said to be experiencing:
During a discussionabout junk food with her two adolescent children, Mrs. Kozena made it veryclear that she thought junk food was disgusting and that it upset her to seeher children eat it. Mrs. Kozena's negative feeling about junk food bestillustrates the _____ component of attitudes.
The belief that one'sown culture or ethnic group is superior to all others and the related tendencyto use one's own culture as a standard by which to judge other cultures iscalled:
_____ is any behaviorthat helps another person, whether the underlying motive is self-serving orselfless.
Most of the Army Reservesoldiers who were convicted of mistreating prisoners at Abu Ghraib:
Before Jackie left forcollege, she told her friend Lisa that she thought sororities were filled withsnobs and that she would never consider joining one. But during Jackie's firstweek on campus, she was approached by a sorority member who invited her to asocial function and encouraged her to pledge. After Jackie attended the party,she told Lisa, “Sororities do a lot of good things for the community. They'rereally service organizations.” Jackie's change in attitude to match herbehavior reflects which of the following concepts?
The _____ refers to thetendency to attribute successful outcomes of one's own behavior to internalcauses and unsuccessful outcomes to external, situational causes.
Kidnapped at knifepointfrom her bedroom in the middle of the night, 14-year-old Elizabeth Smart washeld captive for over nine months by a drifter and his female companion. Whenpolice finally found her and the details of her captivity were widelypublicized, some observers publicly questioned why the girl never tried toescape or get the attention of the police. Such responses illustrate anattributional pattern called:
blaming the victim.
Natalie suggests thatthe aggressiveness of her brother's new friend is the result of his friend'slow self-esteem. Natalie's inference about the cause of the behavior of herbrother's friend is an example of:
“Hal got hit by a carwhen he was jogging? Really? Well, it doesn't surprise me,” Erin commented. “Henever wears reflective gear, so I bet the driver couldn't even see him.” Erin'sresponse illustrates an attributional pattern called:
Dr. Strayer isconducting research about how people form impressions of other people and howthey interpret each other's behavior in a variety of situations. Dr. Strayer isprobably a _____ psychologist.
Psychologist CherylKaiser and her colleagues looked at how people with a strong belief in a justworld psychologically resolved the fact that thousands of innocent people diedin the terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001.Kaiser found that people with a strong belief in a just world advocated _____those who committed the injustices because doing so would _____.
The tendency to adjustone's behavior, attitudes, or beliefs to group norms in response to real orimagined group pressure is called:
The performance of anaction in response to the direct orders of an authority or person of higherstatus is called:
The branch of psychologythat studies how people think, feel, and behave in social situations is called:
During Stanley Milgram'soriginal obedience study, most of the subjects:
The Stanford PrisonExperiment:
involved Stanford University students playingthe roles of prisoners and guards in a simulated prison.
On a cross-country roadtrip Gregory ran out of gas on the outskirts of Edenville, population 3,211.Which of the following is most probable?
Alan always has beenterrified of spiders. He refuses to enter his bedroom at night until it hasbeen thoroughly checked for spiders. Even a picture of a spider makes himextremely uncomfortable. Most likely, Alan is suffering from a psychologicaldisorder called:
Lou Ann has beendiagnosed with a psychological disorder called agoraphobia. Lou Ann is afraidof:
A person with _____personality disorder is more likely to be self-destructive and threaten toself-mutilate or commit suicide.
Claire stopped takingher medication a few weeks ago and has recently begun to experience some veryodd symptoms. If someone asks her a question, her response makes no sense, asher sentences seem to just be strings of loosely connected ideas. She cannotconcentrate on anything, and her thinking seems completely illogical anddisorganized. She veers from one unrelated topic or activity to another for noapparent reason. Taken together, Claire appears to be experiencingschizophrenic symptoms that are called:
Which of the followingis a positive symptom of schizophrenia?
In contrast to normalanxiety, pathological anxiety:
The term _____ refers tothe scientific study of the origins, symptoms, and development of psychologicaldisorders.
Martin is a clinicalpsychologist who works for a welfare agency. Twice a week, Martin makes hisrounds throughout the city. Under one of the city bridges lives Kirby, whosesymptoms include flat affect, peculiar behaviors, and giggling for no apparentreason. Kirby's symptoms reflect the _____ type of schizophrenia.
Severe, debilitatingdepression is to _____ as chronic, low-grade depression is to _____.
Regarding the differencebetween normal and abnormal behavior, which of the following statements isTRUE?
A _____ is an intense,irrational fear that is triggered by a particular object or situation.
The main symptom of adisorder called _____ is frequent, unpredictable, and unexpected panic attacks.
Kirk is difficult towork with because he is extremely moody and unpredictable. Some days he is fullof complaints about his job and wants nothing to do with his coworkers. Atother times, Kirk is extremely upbeat and optimistic and enthusiasticallysuggests that the whole work group go out to lunch together. Kirk's chronicmood swings and his inconsistent behavior are characteristics of which of thefollowing disorders?
When people first meetfourteen-year-old Micah, they find him to be an attractive, charming young man.But Micah's adoptive parents, his teachers, and his schoolmates know otherwise.Micah is a chronic liar, manipulator, and bully. In the past four years, he hasbeen caught several times vandalizing other people's property in hisneighborhood and at his school. He has been arrested twice for shoplifting andwas also caught trying to cash a forged check. Based on this information, it isprobably safe to say that Micah would be diagnosed as having:
Dr. Gordon uses thebiopsychosocial model to guide her research into how psychological factorsinfluence health, illness, and treatment. Dr. Gordon is most likely a:
Controlling personalreactions is to _____ as exerting control over the situation is to _____.
Which of the followingis the BEST definition of stress?
The branch of psychologythat studies how biological, behavioral, and social factors influence health,illness, medical treatment, and health-related behaviors is called:
During their third yearat college, Tammy and Timothy both lost their part-time jobs in the library dueto funding cutbacks. Tammy was mildly disturbed, shrugged her shoulders, andsaid she'd soon get another job. Timothy was distraught and believed he mighthave to quit college. Their different reactions to the same stressful eventemphasizes the importance of:
Abby's husband wascritically injured in a car accident. He survived, but Abby had to care for himat home for several months before he was able to regain normal functioning,which was very stressful for Abby. After he was able to return to work, Abbyfelt completely exhausted. According to Hans Selye, Abby had probablyexperienced the:
_____ refers to asituation in which a person feels pulled between two or more opposing desires,motives, or goals.
Carmen is faced with asituation in which she has to decide between two equally appealing choices: goto Garden State College or go to Parkland State College. This type of conflictis called an:
_____ are everyday,minor events that annoy and upset people.
Sometimes when a person feelsanxious, he or she retreats mentally into an earlier time of life where he orshe felt happier and more comfortable. For example, when four-year-old Billy‘s little sister was born and“stole” all his parents’ attention, he went back to sucking his thumb andcarrying his blanket like he did when he was two. This is an example of:
The belief that personalityemerges from ongoing mutual interactions among people’s cognitions and actionsand their environment is:
Of the big five personalitytraits, this one would best be described as getting along well with otherpeople. The person with a high score onthis trait likes to help others, trusts others, and generally goes long withwhat others choose to do.
Disordered behavior is causedby genetics, hormones, or chemical activity in thebrain
Disordered behavior is theresult of learning and identifiable environmental factors.
Ravi is worried about losinghis teeth at an early age, even though he has no particular reason to believethat he will suffer early tooth loss. Hebrushes his teeth 10 times a day. Eachtime, he uses exactly 83 strokes up and 83 strokes down. After he eats, he must brush twice with twodifferent brands of toothpaste. Ravi suffers from a (n) _____________ disorder.
Psychotherapy is done by:
Carolyn’s therapist told her to relax and spontaneously say whateverthoughts or images came to her mind. Her therapist was using the psychoanalytictechnique known as:
In the 1950s, Solomon Aschasked people to identify which of three comparison lines was
identicalto a standard line. His research was designed to study:
The process by which we useinformation to make inferences about the causes of behavior.
What is cognitive dissonance?
mental discomfort experienced due to contradictory thoughts &behaviors
What seems to be the best explanation for the finding that so many people were willing to go all the way to 450 volts in the Milgram experiment?