1. Why is observation with out intervention an obtrusive and not an unobtrusive method of making observations?
Your mere presence at the scene can alter the behavior of others
When the researcher takes part in observation to get a certain condition or reaction i.e., watch queen, rosenhand, anthropologic studies
3. Truly unobtrusive observation is when the researcher has no influence on the behavior of the participant. Two methods of making such observations were discussed including physical traces and archival data. Which of the following correctly defines each of these types of observation
Physical traces include items that are left over from a person’s behavior Archival data include various kinds of records or documents
5. When the behavior we are interested in studying only occurs very infrequently we must use which of the following types of sampling techniques:
6. Several limitations of naturalistic observation were discussed including poor representation, poor replicability. Briefly discuss.
- Poor representation can skew the data. They may not be the participants you want, just what is available, samples of convenience.
- Poor replicability is caused when an experiment cannot be exactly replicated and therefore the research has a different outcome
- Ex Post Fallacy is after the fact and we lack control and have no IVs
- Limitations of the observer may lead to experimenter reactivity or bias because of the observer’s theory, beliefs, or attitude.
- Participant reactivity is when the participant’s behavior may change by merely observing the behavior.
7. Within survey research mail questionnaires are often used. However the response rate is usually quite low. Name two things that researchers can do to increase the response rate.
Mail a reminder, have a sponsor to legitimize, inducement offers (like a prize), convince participant of the study significance, include postage paid envelope
8. Several considerations concerning correlational research were discussed in class. Which of the following is NOT true concerning correlational research:
Correlations never use any type of manipulation
9. A spurious relationship exist when:
A third variable may explain the relationship between the two variables of interest
10. The correlation coefficient is the number that indicates:
Both the direction and strength of the relationship
Interval level of measurement, linear relationship, normal distribution
12. The conditions to be met for Spearman Rank Order Correlational are:
Ordinal level of measurement, linear relationship, non-normal distribution
13. The type of correlational conducted when we want to control for a known confounding variable by removing the effects of this variable from the relationship between the two primary variables of interest is known as a:
14. With correlational research two effects need to be controlled. One of these is known as __________, which is the tendency of investigators to see what they expect to see, which can be controlled by_____________.
Experimenter expectancy effects, using objective measures
15. The other effect is known as ____________, which is the tendency of investigators to influence the behaviors of the participants, which can be controlled by _______.
Experimenter reactivity, using objective measures
16. What distinguishes differential research from true experiments is that with differential research we are observing two or more groups that are differentiated on the basis of some:
17. As a result of the variable identified in the question above, differential research uses Independent Variables that are ___________ and assignments to groups that is __________.
Non manipulated, not random
18. Several different types of differential studies were covered. One type of study involves creating cohorts and then following them longitudinal. This type of study is called:
19. The development of operational definitions is an integral part of creating research hypotheses. In fact, operational definitions are needed for all of the following reasons except:
None of the above, we need operational definitions for all these reasons
(Repicability & consistency)
20. A few different types of hypotheses were discussed. One of these hypotheses states that there will be no difference between the two conditions being compared beyond chance differences. This is known as:
21. Another type of hypothesis is called the confounding variable hypothesis states that the observed differences may be due to extraneous factors. This hypothesis is different than the above hypothesis in question 18 (this # may change for final) because:
Rather than testing this hypothesis directly we ensure that the confounding variables have been controlled
22. The obtained p value, the probability of the finding, concerns the ________ of the data, not the _____________ of the data.
23. Validity has been defined as:
The concepts being investigated are ones we say we're measuring.
Test what they test. Match between hypothesis &methods
All the above
24. Several types of validity we discussed in class. ___________ refers to whether the findings were due to some systematic factor or due to chance variations in the data.
25. Another type of validity is ____________, which concerns how well the results of the research support the theory behind the research. It essentially concerns whether the theory being tested is the best possible explanation for the findings.
26. The type of validity known as ____________ refers to the degree to which the results of the research are generalizable to other participants, conditions, times, and places.
27. Finally, _________ concerns the demonstration of causality. Essentially this type of validity concerns whether the I.V. and not some confounding variable is responsible for the results, the changes in the D.V.
28. Briefly describe the difference between a confounding variable and an extraneous variable
Confounding variable destroys causality and provides alternate explanations
Extraneous variable has potential to be a confound but isn’t necessarily one
29. C2HRISTMAD (CsHR)
Compensatory rivalry – untreated group learns of the treated group and works extra hard to ensure that the treated group does not do better
Compensatory equalization – when the untreated group learns of the treated group and demand equal treatment
History – events that occur during the experiment that causes changes in the participant
Regression to the means – there’s a problem when participants are selected because their scores on some measures are extreme
29. C2HRISTMAD (IST)
Instrumentation – refers to changes in measuring instruments over time
Selection – whether the groups being compared are equivalent before the manipulation; the systematic differences other than those caused by the manipulation
Sequence effects – problem within subjects design, occurs when order of presentation is always the same
Testing – also known as “practice effects”, when subjects gain proficiency through repeated exposure
29. C2HRISTMAD (MAD)
Maturation – related to changes in the participant’s level of experience, a problem with longitudal and within subjects design
Attrition – participants are lost differentially between the two groups, such as when the subjects drop out
Diffusion – when the participants are able to communicate with each other and give away procedures
30. Control procedure that involves structuring of the research setting to eliminate confounding variables. Specifically addresses internal and external validity:
Preparation of the setting
31. Control procedure that involves the selection and preparation of the instruments to be used to measure the variables. Specifically addresses statistical and construct validity:
32. Which of the following in not a control over subject/experimenter effects?
33. A single blind procedure (which is a type of subject/experimenter effect control) is:
When the research assistant is blind to the assignment of the participants
34. A double blind procedure (which is a type of subject/experimenter effect control) is:
When both the researcher and the participants are blind to the assignment of the participants
35. An open label study is when:
No one in the experiment is blind to participant assignments
36. Population type that refers to the entire set of individuals, of whatever is of interest:
37. Part of the target population that researchers have access to, and from which they draw their sample:
36. General population
37. Accessible population
38. Most psychological research uses:
39. Larger samples...:
40. Involves drawing a sample so that every member of that sample has an equal chance of being selected, and selections do not affect each other:
39. Reduce sampling error
40. Random sampling
41. Involves creating sub-populates on the basis of some characteristics that we think may influence the data. We then draw from these sub-populations:
Stratified random sampling
42. When the population to which researchers generalize is defined by the characteristics of the sample:
43. The most powerful tool for preserving internal validity and controlling for known and unknown confounds:
42. Ad hoc sampling
44. When we are unsure of how many participants will be in our experiment, we:
Randomly assign the conditions to the participants (not vice-versa) so that we may still make causal inferences
2 Independent Variable
Clearly stated hypothesis