Prelude to ‘The afternoon of a Faun’
Poem by Stephane Mallarme
that evokes dreams and erotic fantasies of a forest creature who is half man have goat.
Long flute solo
quiet revolution” in history of music
Found by Sergei Diaghilev
adopted twelve tone system from Schoenberg
international celebrity in 20’s and 30’s
JFK honored him at white house dinner
friends with Picasso and T.S. Elliot
The Rite of Spring (Le Sacre du Printemps)
famous riot in music history occurred in paris at the premiere ballet
chords, rhythms and percussive sounds are now heard in jazz, rock, and music for movies and tv
rhythmic irregularities, harsh dissonances, percussive orchestration, rapidly changing meters, violent offbeat accents, and ostinatos fired imagination of many composers
2 parts, Part 1-adoration of the Earth, Part 2- The sacrifice
impressionism French composer,
linked romantic with modern era.
Interest in Russian music, also Asian music at paris expo, and Richard wagner.
Taught music theory in Vienna
Inspired students (berg and Weber)
Abandoned traditional tonal system
Twelve tone system
Jewish, came to the US when Nazis took power
U of Cal music faculty
Wrote atonal music, absence of key.
A Survivor From Warsaw-
about murdering jews by Nazis during world war.
Pierrot lunaire “Mondestrunken”
Based on weird poems by Albert Giraud, Poems deal with puppet pierrot, a tragic clown character derived from the Italian improvised theater.
scored for voice, piano, flute, violin, and cello, which begins the fantastic night journey. Moon is wine drank through eyes
Based off play by Georg Buchner.
tragic story of soldier who is driven to murder by hostile society. Betrayed by Marie, woman with whom he lived. Wozzeck stabs Marie to death and drowns while trying to wash her blood from his hands.
3 acts, each with 5 scenes
Schoenbergs student in Vienna
Shot by mistake by an American soldier and died
Most of his works are short, 2 to 3 mins
Atonal and 12 tone system like Schoenberg
Five pieces for Orchesra, Op. 10
4th piece is less than 30 seconds, uses unconventional instruments such as mandolin, guitar, cowbells, and harmonium.
East European folk song inspired, born in Hungary
Taught piano at Budapest academy
He became leading authority on peasant music
Fused folk, classical, and 20th century sounds
Revitalized and reinterpreted rondo, fugue, and sonata forms
Had tonal center, but used harsh dissonance, polychords, and tone clusters
Concerto for Orchestra, Second Movement: Game of Pairs
game of woodwinds and brass instruments
poly-modal, any interval can be consonant
Yale U and became Insurance agent
Considered first great composer from the US
Pulitzer prize winner for Third Symphony written 40 years earlier
Polyrhytms, polytonal, and tone clusters
stylistic juxtaposition based of Ive’s own experience
Putnams Camp, Redding, Connecticut from Three Places in New England
3 pieces for orchestra evoking American history, life, and landscape.
Putnam’s camp is about child at July 4th picnic,
2 marching bands clashing,
yankee doodle is quickly played in opening
Brother Ira was lyricist
Porgy and Bess
deals with lives of poor black people in Charelston, South Carolina
Rhapsody in Blue
Gershwin's most famous composition
one movement for piano and orchestra.
Free rhapsodic form and blues flavor.
Three main sections and a coda; extended piano solos.
Opens with famous clarinet solo (starts low trill and climbs scale to high “wailing” tone). Concludes with a rapid coda
William Grant Still
African American “Harlem Renaissance”
Born in Mississippi, but grew up in Arkansas where he studied violin.
Worked for publisher W.C. Handy
Studied with George Whitefield Chadwick and dgard Varese
First African American to conduct a major symphony orchestra
Afro-American Symphony, 3rd Mvt
William Grant Still's best known work shortly after onset of depression.
Developed blues theme, used tenor banjo (afro amer character).
Title from poems by Paul Laurence Dunbar.
3rd movement—hallelujah melody
known as the “empress of the blues”
most famous blues singer of the 1920’s
“classic” blues singer
“Lost Your Head Blues”
performed with cornet (Joe Smith) and piano (Fletcher Henderson)
5 stanzas set to the 12-bar blues pattern
Born in Brooklyn, studied with Nadia Boulanger in france
Came back from France and wanted to make “Jazz,” later changed to folklore.
originated as a ballet score for Martha Graham (great modern dancer).
Today performed as ballet and as a concert piece.
Uses a shaker melody entitled Simple Gifts.
Section 7—a theme and 5 variations based on shaker tune Simple Gifts
Argentinean, one of the most prominent Latin American composers of the 20th century.
Studied with Aaron Copland at the Berkshire Music Center
Promoted avant-garde musical techniques.
Early works are nationalistic and have argentina fold materal, including popular dances.
Adopted Schoenbergs 12 tone system
Estancia Suite, Op. 8a
Spanish for argentine ranch, commissioned by Lincoln Kirsten, but ballet company was disabanded. Arranged several of its dances as the estancia suite for orchestra, which became one of his most popular works. “describes various aspects of ranch activity during a day, from dawn to dawn.” Large orchestra with 4 movements. FINAL DANCE: Malambo (4th mvt): malambo is a dance for men performed only by gaucho
Estancia Suite, 4th mvt.: MalamboPampeana No. 2
grand piano whose sound is altered by objects such as bolts, screws, rubber bands, pieces of felt, paper, and plastic inserted between the strings of some of the keys.
Sonatas and Interludes for Prepared Piano - 20 short pieces, 16 one movement sonatas, and 4 interludes
Sonata II – 2 min in AABB form. Part A moves from single melodic line to two voice texture. Part B is almost twice as long as A and has more extended phrases and richer texture.
liberation of sound - is electronic development
born in France, raised in US
Ellen Taaffe Zwilich
Won Pulitzer prize
Born in Miami Florida
Professional violinist, composer, professor
studied under Elliot Carter
75 when composed
8 min piece for Brussel’s world fair.
Architect Le Corbusier
Electronic generators, church bells, sirens, organs, human voices, and machines
Concerto Grosso 1985 - Commission by The Washington Friends of Handel to celebrate 300th bday
Ellen Taaffe Zwilich
alternates quotations from Handel, uses baroque techniques (repeated rhythmic patter short-short-long, short-short-long found in music by Bach and Handel
minimalism- driving pulse, constant repetition and clear tonality
“post”- lyrical, expressive melodies and varied orchestral colors
influenced by american popular music
Short Ride in a Fast Machine
4 min fanfare
rapid tempo, rhythmic drive, and powerful colorful sonorities
2 synthesizers and percussion instruments by 4 musiscians
end, stirring fanfare-like melody in trumpets
continues writing music 101 years old.
Charles Ives is mentor, Rite of Spring had powerful impact.
Studied with Nadia Boulanger
Taught at Juilliard school
Less than 3 mins
Composed by virtuoso guitarist David Starobin
exists both as an independent composition and as a section within Luimen
Culture hero, conductor, pianist, author, lecturer , and composer of orchestral and vocal works
Homeland Puerto Rico
America (West Side Story)
Combines latin flavor song and dance
Three sections A,B,C
A: recurring main melody
B: solo by Rosalia
Hispanic flavor similar to Malambo
Claves, guiro and guitar typical sound of South America