Focused vocabulary acquisition activities and instruction
Preview text, make predictions, question, guide discussions.
• Use both narrative and expository texts.
Read-aloud for listening comprehension and oral language development.
Develop comprehension strategies to
self-monitor student understanding.
learning to read better and at high- er levels of cognitive application continues throughout an academic career especially in content areas (non-fictional, informational text). To make the transition from learning to read towards reading to learn, students must:
• Read different types of text (i.e. narrative, informational, technical, etc.)
• Use the organizational features of a book
the teacher must model thought processes used by a competent adult where students can make personal connections.Self-questioning, re-reading, mapping, using reading journals, discussing text, think-alouds.
• Provide opportunities for students to listen to texts they would not be able to read independently.
Formal and informal assessment procedures are used to adjust instruction, including instruction for all at-risk students.
• Fluent readers are able to focus attention on understanding text.
• Non-fluent readers focus their attention on decoding, leaving less attention free for comprehension.
matching comprehension strategies to different types of text and different pur- poses for reading)
Learning by doing and discovery learning are enhanced when accomplished in the context of cooperative groups. Information
locatedbetweenstudentscanbediscussed, evaluated, categorized, etc. promoting language proficiency in the content area which is the first step to cognitive academic language proficiency.
Utilize maps, tables, and graphs to locate, retrieve, and retain information from a range of texts and technologies.
Facilitate by manipulatives, examples, and diagrams.
Historical fiction, poetry, myths, fables.
Story elements, features of different literary genres.
letter formation (cursive/non-cursive) • word writing (morphology of nouns,
verbs, adverbs, adjectives) • sentence construction (syntax) • spelling (decodable or irregular words) • punctuation (rules) • grammatical expression (semantics)
The teacher understands that a relationship exists between spelling, phonological, and alphabetic awareness. For example, for a student to spell correctly, he/she must have a thorough understanding of phonological (target sounds) awareness and alphabetic awareness (knowing which letter goes with which sound).
Spelling instruction follows common patterns based on previously taught skills in the con- text of meaningful and purposeful written expression. Spelling instruction:
• Promotes vocabulary growth. • Develops word knowledge. • Should be taught explicitly before all
content-area instruction. • Includesphonetic/non-phoneticawareness,
accelerates conventional spelling, and reveals what students know about sounds and letters
students must use spelling skills in the con- text of meaningful written expression. This equates to writing in real-life situations and using online and regular dictionaries.
Contextualized lessons with meaningful expression should be incorporated in writing convention instruction. These include as an example:
• Proof-reading activities • Literacy centers • Technology software and productivity
tools • Word study activities
Similarities and differences in spoken and writ- ten English are noted such as syntax, vocabu- lary variety, vernacular, and lexical vocabulary/ phrases (idioms).
Scribbling, drawing, labeling with pictures, inventorying (I love you. I love me.), inven- torying + description (I love grandma because she bakes cookies), description (Mom is nice, and she has black hair), textu- al features: beginnings of narrative and expository text
create an environment to write • model writing as enjoyable • writing is for lifelong learning
Computer-aided writing, technical writing, diagrams, peer discussion groups, cause and effect chain, conduct an interview, creating a classroom magazine, descriptive writing, dia- logues, KWL chart, gallery walk, journaling, think sheets, writing letters
prewriting (organizing, brainstorm, outline) • drafting (first attempt to write, sloppy copy)
editing (fix mechanical, grammatical, and spelling errors) revising (consider clarity of message and the audience response)
Writing is done for a variety of: • audiences (who, how many, purpose,
what they want, importance) • purposes (descriptive, expository,
narrative, expressive, persuasive)
Providedirect,explicitinstruction for acquisition/use of study and inquiry skills.
The teacher may be the only effective model for this skill for the student. It is imperative the teacher think aloud, provide rubrics, include communicative research (Bloom’s Taxonomy), motivational research (Stephen Covey’s Seven Habits of Highly Effective People) and provide enough opportunities for individual, small group, and large group discussion, practice, and reflection.