objects continue to exist when they are out of sight. This is developing at Substage 4.
Infants show_A not B search errors_: look for an object in hiding place A after the object is moved from A to B.
Babies as young as 3 ½ months may have a basic understanding of object permanence but a more full understanding comes gradually.
Tertiary Circular Reactions (12-18 most) Infants repeat actions with variation (tertiary) & explore more. Infants have a better understanding of object permanence. -EX: kids testing things out and doing things over and over to get different outcomes, throwing toys off a table to see what happens -EX: grabbing mobile hanging from above
Mental Representation (18 mo-2 yrs) Toddlers have mental representations: internal images of absent objects & past events. This also allows:
Deferred imitation: watch a behavior and the ability to copy the behavior later.
Functional Play (motor activity where schemes are practiced) & Make-Believe Play
EX: running and jumping, jumping to see how high they can get
children arebrn with a biologically based system for learning language called the language acquisition device (LAD): has a set of rules common to all languages
•Evidence for sensitive periods for language development (second language learning is easier for young children)
-nature and nurture working together
stabe individual differences in quality and intensity ofemotional reaction, activity level and self regulation
(10% of the sample) children are slow to adapt to new experiences and react negatively and intensely
-classified as difficult are more likely to have a later behavior problem
(15% of the sample) children are inactive and adjust slowly to new experiences
-35% of the kids did not fit into any of the 3 categories
Emotion: distress, positive afftect and soothability (if you are upset how easy is it for you to calm down)
Attention: attention apan and persistence (how well babies focus on objects & shift their attention)
Action: activity level (hyper child vs. calm child)
how temperament & environmental influences work together. It describes the match between the parents’ characteristics and the child’s temperament.
for the child.
Bowlby's Ethological Theory
Inborn signals such as smiling & crying help bring
newborn into close contact with others.
Explores freely in mom’s presence; upset when she leaves, not comforted by stranger, comforted when mom returns
Indifferent in mom’s presence; may not cry when she leaves, but show elevated cortisol; may be comforted by stranger, turns away when mom returns
rapid growth in mental representation and activity during the preschool years 2-6
Egocentrism, Intuitive behavior, Language, Limits in preoperational thought
many Piagetian problems are too complex for young children to handle at one time
egocentrism: familiar objects 4yrolds can see other perspectives
animistic & magical thinking: childrens animistic response are due to incomplete knowledge about objects, children are able to conserve earlier than piaget thought
evaluation of preoperational stage
1) children do better at this age than Piaget thought: when given simplified tasks taht are familiar, preschoolers show the beginnings of logical thinking
2) the development of logical thinking is more continuous than discontinuous process
self directed or private speech
Piaget- children talk to themselves because they are egocentric
Vygotsky- children talk to themselves for guidence
most research supports Vygotskys view of private speech
the social context of learning
-verbal communication is not the only way to learn
-vygotsky did not focus on underlying processes (attention, memory)
adjusting the guidence needed during a teaching session
-children's planning & problem solving improves w/ a more capable peer or adult
thinking about mental processes/thoughts
-theory of mind enables predictions and explanations of behavior
--includes false belief, appearance-reality distinction
-EX sally anne task; unexpected contents task
A mental condition, present from early childhood, characterized by great difficulty in communicating and forming relationships
usually noticed by parents during the first 3 years of a childs life
Significant problems developing nonverbal communication skills, such as eye-to-eye gazing, facial expressions, and body posture
Delay in, or lack of, learning to talk. As many as 40% of people with autism never speak