what are the 2 overarching concepts for the dietary guidlines for americans?
1. maintain calorie balance over time to achieve and sustain a healthy weight
2. focus on consuming nutrient dense foods and beverages
what are the reccomendations for each of the overachring conepts of the DGA's?
1. monitoring food/beverage intake, physical activity &body weight
2. when eating out make better choices
3. reduce porportion sizes
4. limit screen time
Nutrient dense food/beverages:
1. reducing sodium, saturated fat, and added sugar
1.protect against rapid increase in blood sugar levels
2. keeps you feeling fuller longer
3. helps block the absorption of some dietary cholesterol in bloodstream
whole fruits, vegies, rich fiber foods, oatmeal, legumes
dixon- fruit smoothies, wraps
togos- wheat bread
panda- plain rice, chicken
mexican- chicken, beans, rice
realtive proportion of lean mass to adipose mass, skin fold measurement, bod pod, under water weighing
men- 4-5%, women- 11-13%
under- less than 18.5
obese- 30 and above
apple: increased risk for chronic disease
ectomorph: light frame, small joints, lean muscle mass, hard to gain weight, fast metabolism
endomorph: at, gains muscle and fat easily, short and stocky, round and thick physique, hard to lose fat, slower metabolism, solid and soft body
Mesomorph: large bones, large and more defined muscle, naturally athletic, gains fat and muscle easier
basal mateabolism rate (BMR): 2/3 of total energy expenditure, influenced by genetics, body comp, biological sex, and age, growth and hormones, history of dieting, caffine, alcohol, substances, environment.
Thermic Effect of food (TEF): energy it takes to digest and absorb nutrients, mechanical breakdown- jaw work, GI tract muscle work, absorption into blood from small intenstine. chemical breakdown- cost take to turn carbs, fat, protein into atp.
physical activity: excercise and non exercise
strength training is more efficient way to maintain weight loss long term as it increases your metabolism through the whole day instead of just during cardio
cardio will peak your metabolism for the time that you are active and then it returns to your rest metabolistic rate
the amount of force a muscle can produce with a single max effort.
asses: determine the 1 rep max, the max resistance that can be lifted once
ability of a muscle or group to sustain a level of muscluar force, remain contracted, or to contract repeatedly
Asses: counting max number of reps of a muscluar contraction
Fitt principal: F- 2-3 days/wk. I- based on goals. Type- 8-10 diff exercises, work all major groups
what are the benefits of using machines and free weights?
machines: safe, less intimidating, quicker, no spotter, support given, adaptable, vraibale, good isolation, only good for some groups,
free weights: can be tailored, range of motion set by lifter, can be done anywhere, standing and sitting postural muscles worked, movements used in daily life, lower cost
static is stationary, dynamic is moving
concentric: a muscle contraction with over all muscle shortening
ecentric: muscle contraction with overall muscle lengthening
pros: accountability, 24 hr coverage, competition, uses activity and change of food intake, motivating
cons: quick weight loss, not safe, weight loss vs body comp, dangerous methods, dont translate to real life
vegan: no animal products
lacto vegetarian: eats milk and cheese
lacto ovo vegetarian: eats milk cheese and eggs
partial, semi or pescovegetarian: eats eggs, dairyand small amounts of poultry, for environment, ethics and long erm health
diets are lower in saturated fats and cholesterol, redusk risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes, kideney disease, some cancers, fewer digestive problems
challenges: diets are low in some vitamins and mnerals, b12, iron, calcium, should eat complentary proteins
men: big strong, powerful, aggresive, courageous, smart, tall dark and handsome
women: small petite, beautiful, pretty, cute, sweet, loving, caring, nurturing
women; adolescence, pregnancy, postpartum
men: puberty, part specific, biceps and chest
cognitive and behavioral phenomena realted to individuals belief that they are not muscluar and lean.
percieve self as weaker, seld esteem dependent on how big they are, check appearence frequently, avoid situations that cause body exposure, abandon socail comitments to keep with training