iii. expansion and caudal migration of the dense caudal portion of one segment fuses with the less dense cranial portion of the next segment
bursts of high frequency waves
- learning, memory, functioning
- stages 1-4
- Basicfunctions: autonomic nervous system control, endocrine system control,organizes behaviors related to survival.
- learning and memory consolidation
Paralysis that normally occurs during REM sleep is incomplete or absent, allowing the person to "act out" his or her dreams.
RBD is characterized by acting out dreams that are vivid, intense, and violent.
- opposite of cataplexy
Head of Femur
Tensor Fasciae Latae
Anterior side of leg
Back of the knee
- in a flexed position
-vibrations of air molecules produced by objects
- Ifthe vibration ranges between 30 and 20,000 times per second ->stimulatesreceptor cells in the ears
- pitch: determines the frequency of molecular vibrations - measuredin hertz (Hz) or cycles/sec
- loudness: amplitude or intensity
- timbre: complexity of the sound
-three ossicles(small bones ): malleus, incus and stapes
Cochlea: long coiled tube structure containingfluid and receptors
Tympanic membrane (theeardrum):
-Sounds coming down the ear canal cause the eardrum to vibrate
-vibrations are transferred to the middle ear
-Sound is funneled through the pinna(the external ear)
- receptive organ for cochlea (inner ear)
-consists of the basilar membrane, the tectorial membrane and haircells
Flexor Hallicus Longus (Toe)
Flexor Digitorum Longus (Toe)
Attachments: Inguinal ligament and iliac crest, lower ribs (chondral portion)
Function: Compresses abdomen
Course: Down & out
Name the 4 lobes of the brain
CEREBRUM: aka CEREBRAL CORTEX
the largest part of the human brain making up 80% of the brain's mass.
a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as those for food and sex. Includes the hippocampus, amygdala and hypothalamus
a biofeedback technique that monitors brain waves with the uses of an EEG to teach people to gain voluntary control over their brain wave activities
a thick band of nerve fibers that connects large areas of the cerebral cortex on each side of the brain and supports communication of information across the hemispheres
the caudal-most (posterior) part of the brain stem, between the pons and spinal cord. Responsible for maintaining vital bodt functions, such as breathing and heart rate.
-Animals first trained to self-administer a drug in the presence of a light.
- lever press response is extinguished by replacing the drug with saline.
- “free” injection of drug is administered OR a stimulus with incentive salience is presented (e.g. a light).
- rat starts to lever press again.
-assists in maintaining blood glucose levels
- detects fall in glucose (hunger increases)
-when blood glucose is low, glucagon stimulates conversion of glycogen (stored version of glucose, in liver) into glucose to increase blood glucose level
- difference between calories consumed and energy expended
- Highfructose corn syrup does not stimulate insulin secretion or enhance leptinproduction, so it fails to activate the brains satiety mechanisms.
•Reduced physical exercise
- People in sedentary jobs less - burn off little
- An efficient metabolism will deposit extra calories in the longterm nutrient reservoir ("thrifty phenotype").
- An inefficient metabolism leads to eating large amountswithout getting fat ("spendthrift metabolism").
- Genetic changes in efficiency may reflect evolutionary changes (e.g., people who live in places where food isscarce will likely inherit genes for an efficient metabolism.