-Process - constantly changing, modifying, adjusting
-Uniquely Human - Only humans
-Collective Activity - all communication requires social agreement to create meaning, there must be shared understanding
-Creative endeavor - we can create a reality to exist, ex. Truth, Love, rules for existance
-Regulatory - Taking possesion of the world via talk, (Ex. Having laryngitis removes power to talk or to have force on your environment) Talk has power (Ex. Wishes, results on an exam, Pregnancy
Intentional and Unintentional
Irreversible - Ex. Verbal diarrhea
Regulative - Guide on how to act (ex. First date)
Constituative - guide how to interpret meaning (ex. It was nice to meet you. We should do this again later).
Content Meaning - Literal or denotative meaning of a message (ex. "Do you want to see the concert on Friday?")
Relationship Meaning - implied or connotative meaning of a message; reflects the personal and relational significance of messages (ex. "I'm kind of interested in you , and I want to go out on a date")
Self Concept: a relatively stable set of perceptions people hold about themselves developed through interaction with others. Provides an important motive for behavior.
Self Esteem: how positively versus negatively we see ourselves
Real behavior consequenses. What we believe will come true.
Ex. "I'm bad at math" = failure in math.
Focuses on presentation of self, "self presentation in everyday life"
Communicating in life is not unlike performing
Ex. a job interview is like a formal performance
about the ways tht we can bve sensitive to others' identity
-social and public, approved
-Situated: the "line" you talk is relevant only to that interaction
-Claimed: the face we say we want to be
Positive Face - need to be liked
Negative Face - need to not be intruded upon (ex. Can you give me a ride to the store?)
Falling short of your own expectations (self)
giving unsolicited advice; insult, anger, embarrass others
Consistent or enduring patterns of behavior or other observable characteristics.
Sensor: prefer to socialize, company of others energizes them, focus on the external world
iNtuitive: prefer solitude, find renewal after spending time alone, focus on internal world or subjective landscape
Thinker: Rely on intellect and impersonal logic, like to analyze data and come to conclusions, value fairness
Feeler: like to be appreciated at work through meaningful things, like words of encouragement (you're doing a great job!) or other things like birthday parties at work or a work softball team.
Judger: Prefer selecting the most important data, eliminating options, and bringing closure to a decision
Perceiver: Like the first part of the decision-making process: generating options, gathering data, exploring possibilities.
–Physical Attraction - based on physical appearance
–Social Attraction - based on fitting in with us
Perceptions of rewardingness
The hard-to-get phenomenon
Similarity: Birds of a feather
Brashers argues that uncertainty is not inherently bad or good; it can make us worry or give us hope
Role of emotion in our response to uncertainty
What do uncertain individuals consider before gathering information (should they decide to gather information?)
feelings about their partner's feelings and intentions
Ex. wondering whether their feelings are reciprocated
Depth and Breadth
Public Image - The outer layers of a person that are visible to others
There are 5 stages each of development and dissolusion
Purpose of Study: To access the effect of self-fulfillment behavior and self-verification behavior on students math scores
Findings: Teacher perceptions may have a greater impact on student self-concepts than student self-concepts had on teacher perception; Self-fulfilling prophecies and self-verification occur simultaneously; Prior student achievement accounts for teacher perceptions and student self-concepts
Northern Exposure - Used communal frame Communication Theory of Identity explore to Jewish American identity
Purpose: Explore the extent of gender differences in the CMC (computer mediated communication) format of Instant Messaging
Women were more expressive than men
Reveals distinctly different communicator styles between:
Extraversion - nondirective (talkative, conciliatory)
Psychoticism - directive (contentious, unresponsive)
Neuroticism - illusive (both deceptiveness & acquiescence)
An examination of Men's and Women's flirting behaviour both offline and on the internet
women used more nonverbal substitutes emoticons and laughter (:-) & lol) and flirted more online
men flirted more face to face
Purpose of study: to examine self-disclosure in ongoing relationships over time
Findfings: Both men and women disclose a lot and reported that their partners disclosed a lot, Both men and women perceive that they disclose more than their partner