develope the project mission and objectives
determine the projects operational and physical requirements
document and pressent the program to the client
additionally must clarify quality expectations
Data gathering in programming phase focusses on
site and context
user needs and preferences
approach to reaching consensus amongst stakeholders
select stakeholder group
agree on the problem or need
develop evaluation criteria
select and collect impact data for each alt.
weigh evaluation criteria
measure evaluation criteria
way to solicit stakeholder opinions concerning development.
help communities and neighborhoods determine how they would like their community or neighborhood to look in the future.
focus on key design issues like building scale and massing, articulation, placement, open space, vehicle parking
on-site investigations of both the structure and function of the built environment.
process of evaluationg buildings in a systematic and rigoruous manner after they have been built and occupied for some time. . Important part is behavioral observation
effort to learn from prior experience
good example is new urbanists reliance onearlier more traditional forms of dev.
Advocate a return to mixed use, human scale dev.
project objectives - ex amt. of space required, desired adjacency relationships, expected quality, general types of land uses, activities or facilities and size and character of them
functional relationships - desired spatial relationships
design guidelines - desired qualities of design solutions - ex. setbacks, street dimensions, lot dimensions, dwelling unit density
proposed site uses (ex. project program)
existing on site and off site conditions
requirements for permitting and approvals
cost of data collection and analysis
goals must be predefined to narrow the scope of data collection
first stage - site recconnaissance - id's potentially significan assets and liabilities.
develop a base map
physical factors - climate, parent material, landform position
biologcial factors - growth, death and decomposition of vegetation, micro-organisms and other biota
cultural factors - previous land use
depth to bedrock
depth to water table
potential natural hazards
modified by vegetation -
leaves cool air thru evapotranspiration
improve air quality
add oxygen to atmosphere
solar radiation and wind
heat index is an estimate of apparent temperature - the temp one feels because of interaction btwen air temp and relative humidity. direct sun can raise index values by 15 degrees.
wind roses - diagrams that show the frequency and distribution of wind direction velocity and duiration at at specific location.
atmospheric, hydrologic, geologic and wildfire
cost of damage attributable to natural hazards in the us has been estimated at an average of $1 billion per week.
year 2000 building code - subsantial shift in public policy regardin construction in areas prone to natural hazards.
aggreggation of interacting species living toether in the same place.
plant communities are often named for the dominant species.
natural corridors in the landscape facilitate the movement of organisms between habitats. Particularly important to maintain existing corridors to help maintain biodiversity and ecosystem connectivity.
Large contiguous natural areas should be given highest priority for protection from development
Nearly 1/2 threatened or endangered species are at risk prmarily because of predation or competition from exotics.
$6 billion spent annually on control of invasives
since the 1600's the US has lost more than 1/2 it's original wetland acreage.
wetland defined on the basis of hydology, soil and vegetation
areas with hydrophytes and hydric soils (marshes, swamps, bogs)
areas wtthout soils but with hydrophytes (aquatic beds)
areas without soil and without hydrophytes ( gravel beaches perodically flooded)
marine - open ocean
estuarine - tidal, salty tidal marshes, tidal flats
riverine - rivers and streams
lacustrine - lakes ponds reservoirs
palustrine - marshes, wet meadows, fens, bogs, swamps
assets that can yeld multiple ecological, economic and social benefits
reduce heating cooling costs
increase value of real estate
tree size measured by diameter at breast height - dbh
influences development suitability
love canal - landmark event. 1970's
epa charged with administering superfund sites
unintended consequences - made brownfields untouchable for cost and liability contributed to sprawl
1990 shift in policy - reducing financial risks in redev. , creation of incentives.
site inventory must consider legal context for site planning
federal regulations typically establish standards or admin. rules that are implemented at state and local levels.
However in US the power to regulate land use is granted to local govt's thru state level enabling legislation.
Local govts influence the pace location and character of new dev with comprehensive plans and zoning codes
community level vision statements aout how a community intens to grow and develop typically over a twenty to thirty year period.
Addresses several issues that are relevant to sutatinable site planning including - transpo, houseing, utilities, natural and cultural resources. and ec. dev.
common form of land use regulation
conventional codes or Euclidean - contribute to sprawl with rigid separation of residential and commercial and fostering land dev. patterns that make transpo by walking or public transit impractical
revision of these codes is a growing trend
banks require property appraisal before financing real estate purchase. also consider effects of site context,
highest and best use qualities of a site and its surroundings should determine at least in part the purpose for which the land is used.
kevin lynch - image of the city - typology to explain how people form coginitive maps of built enviro
edges (ex. coast)
districts (ex. neighborhoods)
nodes (entrances, plazas)
landmarks (unique buildings and structures)
influenced by street and walkway arrangement, bldg articulation, indigenous materials etc... pattern books - guide to context sensitive design
mapping - figure ground mapping. particularly good for pattern of open spaces
dw meinig - 10 possible ways to which knowledge experiences and values influence our perceptions of the land..
nature, habitat, artifact, system, problem, wealth, ideology, history, place, aesthetic
hierarchy of human needs - basic needs must be satisfied firsr. safety, food, shelter, clothing
most common seasonal influence on visibility is vegetation
diagnostic process that identifies the opportunities and constraints for a site's specfic program
program + site inventory/existing conditions
goals/objectives physical attributes
land uses/activities biological attributes
phasing cultural attributes
= site suitability (constraints and opportunities)
helps protect public health, safety and welfare from natural hazards
environmental determinism - allows analysis of biophysical conditions to drive land use allocation decisions (mcharg)
used to id locations within a specified distance of one or more reference features
natural resources requiring protection from dev
cultural resources requiring protection from dev
overlaying of 2 or more attribute layers
intersection and union
green or ecological infrastructure
aquifer recharge areas
E-Ways - environmental corridors. most significant ecological and cultural resources located around wetlands, water, steep topography
coastal communities - hurricanes
low lying zones - storm surge
urban areas more complex
must search for order and patterns of mass and space
figure ground diagrams
also analyze pedestrian circulation to reveal
connected with peculiar characteristics of a location
what a place has when it somehow belongs to its location and nowhere else
2 fundamental criteria
placelessness results for lack of attention to space making
design with nature
design with culture
design for people
significant site and contextual conditions that shape or inform the development of sustainable site plans
intrinsic - physical conditions, regulations and standards
extrinsic - number and location of site entrances, iconic buildings, local character, nearby buildings and infrastructure.
set of guiding principles and strategies for making design decisions
rules of thumb for organizing program components
time to explore, evaluate, compare
organizing, spatially arranging major components
project program + community goals + site suitability
thru the prism of design theory, graphic communic. ethics
= concept plans
anatomy of a concept plan
show spatial framework for subsequent detailed design of
3 major site components
conduit for upland animals
source for food and water
sink - absorb floodwaters
can be integral element to a community's larger open space infrastructure
create strong sense of arrival as well as places for lingering
linear - recreation corridors paralell natural feature like stream
grid - parallel street network
loop - trail
radial - plaza
spiral - memorial
protect - from unneccessary impact
restore - degraded areas
reuse - brownfields
build - walkable - smart growth
conserve - resources
unity (most comprehensive) - achieved thru
implies both internal coherence and compatibility with surroundings
visual weight associated with color, form, texture,
often achieved in relation to an axis
weight of visual attributes - symmetry, asymmetry
scale - size of elements correspond to size of human body
when design element is distinct from other nearby elements thru
contrast - creates focal points
hierarchy - establishes dominant/subordinant elements
rectilinear - lines, right angles, rectangles and squares
angular - points, radiating lines, triangles/hexagons
curvilinear - generative points, arcs, tangents, circles
separation - vehicle from pedestrian
minimize - ped. conflicts with veh. bikes
minimize - ped risks to natural hazards
provide - vehicle free zones
satisfy - desire lines
minimize - walkway interruptions
provide pathway hierarchy, direct access for ada
ensure- all gradiants are safe
sustainable site development
indoor enviro. quality
reclaiming the built environment for pedestrians
restoration and redevelopment
address 3 sets of issues
permitted use of land and buldings - residential, commercial, industrial
intensity of use - dwelling density FAR building height
height bulk and other dimensional standards - FAR, setbacks
concerned with structural integrity of a building
health and safety
proposd development activities
impacts of proposed development activities
payments of money or land in lieu of fees to compensate local jurisdictions for the cost of off site improvements to public infrastructure necessitated by the development
3 primary factors - vegetation, soils, hydrology
protected under section 404 of clean water act