All of the chemical reactions of the cell
The breakdown of peptidoglycan to N-acetylmuramic acid, N-acetylglucosamine and peptides
proteins that function as catalysts.
Formation of peptide bonds between amino acids to build a polypeptide
contain the active site
A holoenzyme is a combination of a protein and one or more substances called
Important components of coenzymes
occur during aerobic cellular respiration
In the cell, energy released by electrons is often used to phosphorylate
glycolysis does NOT
degrade glucose to CO2 and H2O
The formation of citric acid from oxaloacetic acid and an acetyl group begins
During aerobic cellular respiration, the final electron acceptor is
In bacterial cells, the electron transport system is located in the
In which pathway is the most NADH generated?
The reactions of fermentation function to produce _____ molecules for use in glycolysis.
During which of the phases of cellular respiration is the majority of ATP formed?
In bacterial cells, when glucose is completely oxidized by all the pathways of aerobic cellular respiration, how many ATP are generated?
When glucose is broken down by glycolysis during bacterial fermentation, how many ATP are generated?
Microbiological contaminants are best described as
unwanted microbes present on or in a substance.
Physical agents for controlling microbial growth does NOT include:
Which of the following microbial forms have the highest resistance to physical and chemical controls?
The process that destroys or removes all microorganisms and microbial forms including bacterial endospores is
The process of using a cleansing technique to mechanically remove and reduce microorganisms and debris to safe levels is
The use of a physical or chemical process to destroy vegetative pathogens is
The use of chemical agents directly on exposed body surfaces to destroy or inhibit vegetative pathogens is:
Scrubbing or immersing the skin in chemicals to reduce the numbers of microbes on the skin is:
Which of the following types of control agents would be used to achieve sterility?
Which is correct regarding the rate of microbial death?
cells in a culture die at a constant rate
Sterilization is achieved by
Dry heat is:
Endospores can be killed by
dry heat at 170° C for 2 hours.
glutaldehyde for 3 or more hours.
ethylene oxide for 3 or more hours.
The minimum sterilizing conditions in a steam autoclave are:
121° C at 15 psi for 15 minutes
Thermal Death Time (TDT)
The shortest time required to kill all the microbes in a sample at a specified temperature
Disinfection of beverages such as apple juice, milk, and wine, is optimally achieved by:
Electrons are ejected from atoms in cells when organisms are exposed to
gamma rays and X rays
Which items are typically irradiated in order to kill microbes?
ground beef and other meat and poultry
human tissues such as heart valves and skin
operating room air
HEPA filters are used to remove microbes from:
The easiest microbial forms to kill or inhibit are:
vegetative bacteria and fungi
Hypochlorites are NOT:
found in iodophors
is NOT used as an antiseptic
is an Iodophor
Compound that is an organic base containing chlorine and two phenolic rings, and is used increasingly for wound degerming, neonatal washes, handscrubbing, and prepping surgical skin sites
denature proteins when in a 50 – 95% alcohol-water solution.
disinfect items soaked in alcohol.
are skin degerming agents.
at 50% or higher concentrations dissolve cell membrane lipids.`
formalin – formaldehyde
Iodophors are NOT
less prone to staining or irritating tissue
Sterilizing gas used in a special chamber
Detergents are NOT
active in the presence of organic matter
Historically, was instilled into the eyes of newborn infants to prevent gonococcal infections
Autoclave is NOT effective for
sterilizing powders, oils, and waxy substances
targets protein conformation
Anaerobic cellular respiration is also called:
Each FADH2 that enters the electron transport system gives rise to _____ ATP.
Enzymes that are regularly found in a cell are termed
When amino acids are deaminated, they can be used as a source of
Fleming – penicillin
Substances that are naturally produced by certain microorganisms that can inhibit or destroy other microorganisms are called:
Antimicrobics effective against a wide variety of microbial types are termed:
Important characteristics of antimicrobic drugs include:
low toxicity for human tissues.
high toxicity against microbial cells.
do not cause serious side effects in humans.
stable and soluble in body tissues and fluids.
Broad-spectrum drugs that disrupt the body's normal flora often cause
Penicillins and cephalosporins
block the peptidases that cross-link glycan molecules
are metabolic analogs of PABA and block folic acid synthesis
attach to the 30S ribosomal subunit and disrupt protein synthesis
Ampicillin, amoxicillin, mezlocillin, and penicillin G all have:
a beta-lactam ring
A chemical that inhibits beta-lactamase enzymes
Cephalosporins are NOT
antimicrobic which does NOT inhibit cell wall synthesis
Gram negative rods are often treated with
Antifungal drug that can be used to treat serious systemic fungal infections
Drug used for several protozoan infections
Mebendazole, niclosamide, and ivermectin are drugs used to treat _____ infections
There are fewer antifungal, antiprotozoan, and antihelminth drugs compared to antibacterial drugs because fungi, protozoa, and helminths:
are so similar to human cells that drug selective toxicity is difficult
Antivirals that target reverse transcriptase would be used to treat
Acyclovir is used to treat
A superinfection results from
decrease in most normal flora with overgrowth of an unaffected species