There are few really new ideas:
True is better than new:
Doing well usually dominates:
Admin mgt- Believed in five positive bureaucratic features to management
A well-defined hierarchy of authority.
Formal rules and procedures.
A clear division of labor, with parts of a complex job being handled by specialists.
Impersonality, without reference or connection to a particular person.
Careers based on merit.
bureaucracy was rational and ideal based on principals of logic
- Emphasizes the scientific study or work methods to improve the productivity of individual workers
- Frederick W. Taylor & Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
emphasized the scientific study of the work methods to improve the productivity of individual workers (Frederick Taylor (father of scientific management) and Frank/Lillian Gilbreth)
Evaluate a task by scientifically studying each part of the task (not use old rule-of-thumb methods).
Carefully select workers with the right abilities for the task.
Give workers the training and incentives to do the task with the proper work methods.
Use scientific principles to plan the work methods and ease the way for workers to do their jobs
o It is concerned with managing the total organization
o Henri Fayol & Max Weber
Behavioral viewpoint emphasized the importance of understanding human behavior and of motivating employees toward achievement
Human relations movement
- Human relations movement proposed that better human relations could increase worker productivity
- Abraham Maslow and Douglas McGregor
Theory X represents a pessimistic, negative view of workers. In this view, workers are considered to be irresponsible, to be resistant to change, to lack ambition, to hate work, and to want to be led rather than to lead.
Theory Y represents the outlook of human relations proponents—an optimistic, positive view of workers. In this view, workers are considered to be capable of accepting responsibility, self-direction, and self-control and of being imaginative and creative.
- Quantitative viewpoint: the application to management of quantitative techniques, such as statistics and computer simulations.
- Two branches of quantitative management are management science and operations management
Management science focuses on using mathematics to aid in problem solving and decision making
Operations management focuses on managing the production and delivery of an organization’s products or services more effectively
Inputs are the people, money, information, equipment, and materials required to produce an organization’s goods or services
Transformation processes are the organization’s capabilities in management, internal processes, and technology that are applies to converting inputs into outputs
Outputs are the products, services, profits, losses, employee satisfaction or discontent, and the like that are produced by the organization
The contingency viewpoint emphasizes that a manager’s approach should vary according to – that is, be contingent on – the individual and the environmental situation
They consist of the ability to think analytically, to visualize an organization as a whole and understand how the part work together
It is defined as monitoring performance, comparing it with goals, and taking corrective action as needed
a. Managers use information to make decision to solve problems or take advantage of opportunities.
b. Entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator
“The Ends”: To be effective means to achieve results, to make the right decisions, and to successfully carry them out so that they achieve the organization’s goals.
“The Means”: to be efficient means to use resources – people, money, raw materials, and the like – wisely and cost-effectively
Four functions of management
a. Managers receive and communicate information
b. Monitor, disseminator, and spokesperson
a. Managers interact with people inside and outside their work units
b. Figurehead, leader, and liaison activities
It is defined as motivating, directing, and otherwise influencing people to work hard to achieve the organization’s goals
Middle managers implement the policies and plans of the top managers above them and supervise and coordinate the activities of the first line managers below them
It is defined as arranging tasks, people, and other resources to accomplish the work
It is defined as setting goals and deciding how to achieve them
setting goals and deciding how to achieve them, coping with uncertainty by formulating future courses of action to achieve specified results
Consist of the job-specific knowledge needed to perform well in a specialized field
Top Managers make long-term decisions about the overall direction of the organization and establish the objectives, policies, and strategies for it
Behavior science approach
Behavior science approach relies on scientific research for developing theories about human behavior that can be used to provide practical tools for managers
It includes three viewpoints – systems, contingency, and quality-management
It includes three viewpoints – classical, behavioral, and quantitative
o A system is a set of interrelated parts that operate together to achieve a common purpose
consists of a formal written set of ethical standards guiding an organization’s actions
Corporate social responsibility
- The notion that corporations are expected to go above and beyond following the law and making a profit
Corporate Social Responsibility
Ethical behavior is behavior that is accepted as “right” as apposed to “wrong” according to those standards
Ethics are the standard of right and wrong that influence behavior
External stakeholders people or groups in the organization’s external environment that are affected by it
The Individual Approach
The individual approach is guided by what will result in the individual’s best long-term interest, which ultimately are in everyone’s self-interest
guided by what will result in the individual’s best long-term interests, which ultimately are in everyone’s self-interest
illegal trading of a company’s stock by people using confidential company information
Internal Stakeholders consist of employees, owners, and the board of directors, if any
The Justice Approach
The justice approach is guided by respect for impartial standards of fairness and equity
The Moral-rights Approach
The moral-rights approach is guided by respect for the fundamental rights of human beings
guided by respect for the fundamental rights of human rights
Values are the relatively permanent and deeply held underlying beliefs and attitudes that help determine a person’s behavior
o “We Know Best”
o Ethnocentric Managers believe that their native country, culture, language, and behavior are superior
believe that their native country, culture, language and behavior are superior to all others
The European Union
Formed in 1957, the European Union consists of 27 trading partners in Europe
company produces goods domestically and sells them outside the country
(more for service companies) aform of licensing in which a company allows a foreign company to pay it a feeand a share of the profit in return for using the first company's brand name anda package of materials and services.
o “What’s Best is What’s Effective, Regardless of Origin”
o Geocentric Managers accept that there are difference and similarities between home and foreign personnel and practices and that they should use whatever techniques are most effective
The trend of the world economy toward becoming a more interdependent system
1. The rise of the global village and electronic commerce
2. The world’s becoming one market instead of national ones
3. The rise of both megafirms and Internet-enabled minifirms worldwide
a company buys goods outsidethe country and resells them domestically
company buys goods outside the country and resells them domestically
The IMF is designed to assist in smoothing the flow of money between nations
A joint venture, also known as a strategic alliance, with a foreign company to share the risks and rewards of starting a new enterprise together in a foreign country
known as a strategic alliance with a foreign company to share the risks and rewards of starting a new enterprise together in a foreign company
In licensing, a company allows a foreign company to pay it a fee to make or distribute the first company’s product or service
shared meanings are primarilyderived from written and spoken words; N. America, GB, Scandinavia, Germany,Switzerland
o The Mercosur is the largest trade bloc in Latin America and has four core members – Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay, with Venezuela scheduled to become a full member upon ratification by the other countries – and five associate members: Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru
using suppliers outside thecompany to provide goods and services.
native managers in the foreign offices best understand native personal and practices, so the home offices leave them alone
A trading bloc, also known as an economic community, is a group of nations within a geographical region that have agreed to remove trade barriers with one another
Wholly Owned Subsidiaries
A wholly owned subsidiary is a foreign subsidiary that is totally owned and controlled by an organization
The purpose of the world bank is to provide low-interest loans to developing nations for improving transportation, education, health, and telecommunications
provideslow-interest loans to developing nations for improving transportation,education, health, and telecommunications.
The WTO is designed to monitor and enforce trade agreements
in the chain of management (operational, tactical, strategic) the accomplishment of low-level goals is the means leading to the accomplishment of high-level goals or ends
determine how to accomplish specific tasks with available resources within the next 1-52 weeks
developing new products or services and in seeking out new markets, rather than waiting for things to happen
Goals that are set by and for top management and focus on objectives for the organization as a whole.
set by and for top management and focus on objectifies for the organization as a whole
determine what the organization’s long-term goals should be for the next 1-5 years which the resources they expect to have available
determine what contributions their departments or similar work units can make with their given resources during the next 6-24 months
long-term goal describing what an organization whats to become, has a clear sense of the future and the actions needed to get there
Definition of management
1. The pursuit of organizational goals efficiently and effectively
2. Integrating the work of people
3. Planning, organizing, leading, and controlling the organization’s resources
Seven challenges for being an effective manager (very important)
1. Managing for Competitive Advantage
2. Managing for Diversity
3. Managing for Globalization
4. Managing for Information Technology
5. Managing for Ethical Standards
6. Managing for Sustainability
7. Managing for Your Own Happiness & Life Goals
First-line managers make short-term operating decisions, directing the daily tasks of nonmanageral personnel
Types of managerial roles
Skills of managers
Consist of the ability to work well in cooperation with other people to get things done
Traits of managers
- The ability to motivate and engage others
- The ability to communicate
- Work experience outside the United States
- High energy levels to meet the demands of global travel and a 24/7 world
Four principles of Scientific Management
1. Evaluate a task by scientifically studying each part of the task (not use old rule-of-thumb methods)
2. Carefully select workers with the right abilities for the task
3. Give workers the training and incentives to do the task with the proper work methods
4. Use scientific principles to plan the work methods and ease the way of workers to do their job
Five bureaucratic features
1. A well-defined hierarchy of authority
2. Formal rules and procedures
3. A clear division of labor, with parts of a complex job being handled by specialists
4. Impersonality, without reference or connection to a particular person
5. Careers based on merit
Hugo Munsterberg, Mary Parker Follett, and Elton Mayo
Why Munsterberg is Important
His ideas led to the field of industrial psychology, the study of human behavior in workplaces, which is still taught in colleges today
Why Follett is Important
With these and other ideas. Follett anticipated some of today’s concepts of “self-management teams,” “worker empowerment,” and “interdepartmental teams” – that is, members of different departments working together on joint projects
Mayo and the Hawthorne Studies Importance
Ultimately, the Hawthorne studies were faulted for being poorly designed and not having enough empirical datat to support the conclusions. Nevertheless, they succeeded in drawing attention to the importance of “social man” (social beings) and how managers using good human relations could improve worker productivity, This in turn led to the so-called human relations movement in the 1950s and 1960s.
o Theory X represents a pessimistic, negative view of workers. In this view, workers are considered to be irresponsible, to be resistant to change, to lack ambition, to hate work, and to want to be led rather than to lead
o Theory Y represents the outlook of human relations proponents – an optimistic positive view of workers. In this view, workers are considered to be capable of accepting responsibility, self-direction, and self-control and of being imaginative and creative
Why Theory X & Y are important
The principal contribution offered by Theory X/Y is that it helps managers understand how their beliefs affect their behavior.
Systems theory regards the organization as a system of interrelated parts
Total Quality management
TQM is a comprehensive approach – led by top management and supported throughout the organization – dedicated to continuous quality improvement, training, and customer satisfaction
Why TQM is important
o The TQM viewpoint emphasizes infusing concepts of quality throughout the total organization in a way that will deliver quality products and services to customers
Types of stakeholders
Task environment consists of 11 groups that present you with daily tasks to handle: customers competitors, suppliers, distributors, strategic allies, employee organizations, local communities, financial institutions, government regulators, special-interest groups, and mass media
The General Environment
The General Environment which includes six forces: economic, technological, sociocultural, demographic, political-legal, and international
A situation in which you have to decide whether to pursue a course of actions that may benefit you or your organization but that is unethical or even illegal
situate in which you have to decide whether to purse a course of action that may benefit you or your organization but that is unethical or even illegal
Four approaches for deciding ethical questions
1.The Utilitarian Approach
2.The Individual Approach
3. The Moral-rights approach
4. The Justice Approach
The Utilitarian Approach
The Utilitarian Approach is guided by what will result in the greatest good for the greatest number of people
Laurence Kohlberg proposed three levels of personal moral development
- follow rules
- follows expectations of others
- guided by internal values
1. Creating a Strong Ethical Climate
2. Screening Prospective Employees
3. Instituting ethics codes & training programs
4. Rewarding Ethical Behavior: Protecting Whistle-blowers
1. You may deal with Foreign Customers or Partners
2. You may deal with Foreign Employees or Suppliers
3. You may work for a Foreign Firm in the United States
4. You may work for an American Firm Outside the United Sites – or for a Foreign One
1. Ethnocentric Managers
2. Polycentric Mangers
3. Geocentric Managers
o “They Know Best”
o Polycentric managers take the view that native managers in the foreign offices best understand native personnel and practices, and so the home office should leave them alone
Five ways of expanding internationally International trade
1. Global Outsourcing
2. Importing, Exporting, & Countertrading
3. Licensing & Franchising
4. Joint Ventures
5. Wholly Owned Subsidiaries
Formed in 1994, the North American Free Trade Agreement is a trading bloc consisting of the US, Canada and Mexico
The APEC countries
Founded in 1989, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation is a group of 21 Pacific Rim countries whose purpose is to improve economic and political ties
The ASEAN countries
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations is a trading bloc consisting of 11 countries in Asia
o The Central America Free Trade Agreement, which involves the United States and Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua – is intended to reduce tariffs and other barriers to free trade
The GLOBE project is a massive and ongoing cross-cultural investigation of nine cultural dimensions involved in leadership and organization processes
Global project nine cultural dimensions
Power distance expresses the degree to which a society’s members expect power to be unequally shared
Uncertainty avoidance expresses the extent to which a society relies on social norms and procedures to alleviate the unpredictability of future events
Institutional collectivism expresses the extent to which individuals are encouraged and rewarded for loyalty to the group as opposed to pursuing individual goals
In contrast to indivualism, in-group collectivism expresses the extent to which people should take pride in being members of their family, circle of close friends, and their work organization
Gender egalitarianism expresses the extent to which a society should minimize gender discrimination and role inequalities
expresses the extent to which a societyshould minimize gender discrimination and role inequalities.
Assertiveness represents the extent to which a society expects people to be confrontational and competitive as opposed to tender and modest
represents the extent to which asociety expects people to be confrontational and competitive as opposed totender and modest.
Future orientation expresses the extent to which a society encourages investment in the future, as by planning and saving
expresses the extent to which a societyencourages investment in the future, as by planning and saving.
Performance orientation expresses the extent to which society encourages and rewards its members for performance improvement and excellence
Humane orientation represents the degree to which individuals are encourages to be altruistic, caring, kind, generous, and fair.
influences on an organization arising from changes in the characteristics of a population, such as age, gender or ethnic origin
2.) One Big World Market: TheGlobal Economy
3.) Cross-BorderBusiness: The Rise of Both Megamergers and Minfirms Worldwide
increasing tendency of the the economies of the world to interact with one another as one market instead of many national markets
designed to monitor and enforcetrade agreements.
Stage 1 Hubris Born of Success
Stage 2 Undisciplined Pursuit of More
Stage 3 Denial of Risk and Peril
Stage 4 Grasping for Salvation
Stage 5 Capitulation to Irrelevance or Death
1. E—Existence Needs Existence needs are the desire for physiological and material well-being.
2. R—Relatedness Needs Relatedness needs are the desire to have meaningful relationships with people who are significant to us.
3. G—Growth Needs Growth needs are the desire to grow as human beings and to use our abilities to their fullest potential.
____________ is a form of licensing in which one company allows a foreign company to pay it a fee and a share of the profit in return for using the first company's brand name and a package of materials and services.
(1) evaluate a task by scientifically studying each part of the task, (2) carefully select workers with the right abilities for the task, (3) give workers training and incentives to do the task with the proper work methods, (4) scientific principals to plan the work methods and ease the way for workers to do their
first person to identity functions of management (planning, organizing, leading, controlling, coordinating)
Weber 5 positive bureaucratic features
(1) well defined hierarchy of authority, (2) formal rules and procedures, (3) clear division of labor wit parts of a complex job being handled by specialists, (4) impersonality, without reference or connection to a particular person, (5) careers based on merit
customers, competitors, suppliers, distributers, strategic allies, employee organizations, local communities, financial institutions, government regulators, special-interest groups, mass media
fall of berlin wall, asian countries opened economies to foreign investors, governments deregulating economies
availability of supplies, new markets, lower labor costs, access to finance capital, avoidance of tariffs and import quotas
company allows a foreign company to pay it a fee to make or distribute the first company’s product or service
form of licensing in which a company allows a foreign company to pay it a fee and a share of the profit in return for using the first company’s brand name and a package of materials and services
defenders, prospectors, analyzers, reactors
(1) establish the organization’s mission and vision (2) formulate the grand strategy (3) formulate the strategic plans, then the tactical and operational plans (4) implement the strategic plans (5) control the strategy
adaptive cycle - three kinds of businesses (1) entrepreneurial (2) engineering (3) administrative
(1) managers and employees jointly set objectives for the employee (2) managers develop action plans (3) managers and employees periodically review the employee’s performance (4) manger makes a performance appraisal and rewards the employee according to results
planning/control cycle - two planning steps: (1/2), two control steps (3/4)
(1) make plan, (2) carry out plan (3) control the direction by comparing results with the plan (4) control the direction by taking corrective action in two ways - (a) correcting deviations in the plan being carried out or (b) by improving future plans
A career that is upwardly mobile, with a number of jobs that are fundamentally different yet still build on one another is known as a(n) ______ career.
Which of the following is one of the organizational responses organizations make when confronted with uncertainty, as identified by Miles and Snow?
A company that is an expert at producing and selling narrowly defined products or services, and which does not tend to seek opportunities outside its present market is known by Miles and Snow as a(n)
When a firm responds to uncertainty in its environment as a(n) ________, its continual pursuit of product and market innovation may lead to a loss of efficiency, but is likely to make competitors nervous.
A company producing cameras and video cameras prefers to focus its resources on a fast imitation program to reverse-engineer new features from competitors and add those, rather than implementing truly inventive features. Miles and Snow would call this company a(n)
If a business lacks insight or fails to use the adaptive cycle properly, it is likely to be which of the following?
Which of the following is the correct order of planning steps within an organization?
(Mission statement & vision statement, strategic planning, tactical planning, operational planning)
There are three levels of planning. Their order, from first to last, is
When White Castle specifies exactly how to dress a hamburger, including the order of the condiments, this is called a
MBO works by cascading objectives down through the organization, and these objectives become more ______ at lower levels of the organization
According to technology philosopher Nicholas Negroponte, the global market driven by electronic information results in an increase of minifirms and
Christine prefers not to deviate from the practices she has always used as a U.S. manager, even though she is now working at an Asian subsidiary. She has been heard saying that she is "just ensuring the job gets done right." Christine is most likely a(n) ________ manager.
Polo Ralph Lauren, Tommy Hilfiger, and Wrangler manufacture jeans at plants in Mexico, thanks to the inexpensive labor there and various tax breaks from the Mexican government. These companies are
Seref purchases handcrafted Turkish rugs overseas and brings them to the United States to sell in his retail store. He is involved in
Pizza Hut provides the use of its name plus operating know-how to companies in Costa Rica in return for a fee plus a percentage of profits. Pizza Hut is
The movement of goods and services among nations without political or economic obstruction is called
Which of the following is a form of trade protectionism?
A duty imposed on imported goods designed simply to raise money for the government is known as a(n)
______ is a trading status that describes a condition in which a country grants other countries favorable trading treatment such as a reduction of import duties.
Jill, a native of New Orleans, was living in Berlin and working for a U.S. news magazine. Jill would best be termed a(n)
A good reason for studying theoretical perspectives of management is that it
______ emphasized the scientific study of work methods to improve productivity of individual workers.
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth identified 17 basic units of ______, each of which they called a “therblig."
Which of the following is a discipline that is part of behavioral science?
The ________ viewpoint emphasizes that a manager's actions should vary according to the situation.
Gary Hamel believes that identifying and challenging debilitating core beliefs that people have about an organization can be helpful in improving management
"Mindfulness" is characterized by which of the following attributes?
According to Deming, quality stemmed from a steady focus on the organization's mission and
To create a learning organization, managers must perform three key functions or roles: build a commitment to learning, work to generate ideas with impact, and
By mid-century, the percentage of Hispanics (of any race) in the U.S. population is expected to ______, and the percentage of non-Hispanic whites is expected to ______.
A general manager at a department store is giving an important presentation to several departments to engage the whole staff in a new customer retention effort beginning this month. This is an example of
In the traditional management pyramid, managers are classified into ______ levels.
A senior vice president is an example of what level of manager?
Which of the following statements about a manager's worklife is not among the findings of management scholar Henry Mintzberg?
According to Mintzberg's work, which of the following is one of the three broad types of roles that managers play?
Colin takes notes at executive council meetings and prepares summaries to present to middle managers and supervisors at a monthly meeting. This task is part of a(n) _______ role.
Armed with a stack of market research, Jalen, a marketing department manager, is in the research and development manager's office attempting to convince him to eliminate two features his engineers plan to add to a product, and replace them with two others based on customer preference. Jalen is operating in the ______ role.
The ability to think analytically is associated with ______ skills.
personality and behavioral characteristics of a male according to culturally defined standards of maleness
Level 1: Observable artifacts
Level 2: Espoused Values
Level 3: Basic Assumptions