focuses on relationships, negotiations, institutions.
mutually beneficial things - environment, econ, pandemics,
causes come from ideology or identity
ideas define identity of people and motivate their use of power, negotiations.
can't isolate one cause
focus on marginalized parties.
trends; social and political change that unfolds w/in history
broad critiques of IR, advocated radical solutions (revolution) generally speaking
usually employed by R and L perspectives, sometimes I
assumes causation (a leads to b) by sequences
sometimes used by I perspective
pay attention to way meaning is formed through language, discursively
events as mutually causing one another (slave-master relationship)
emphasize ideas, such as word content/social discourse over institutions or power)
Realist- in situations of great threat to maintain security
Liberal- finding ways to cooperate, to move forward
Identity- distinguishing btw potential allies/enemis (?)
standards fo good conduct for human behavior
-relativism vs. universalism, pragmatism
highlights realist perspective by showing that it is sometimes/often not rational to cooperate
situation where that which one actor gains, the other loses.
decentralized distribution of power in the international system
no leader/center of authority has power and legitimacy to use it
principles of self-defense that arise from situation of anarchy.
states have no one to rely on to defend their security except themselves
when states aim to defend themselves and, in turn, threaten security of another state. (arms races)
school of realism that sees war most likely when a rising power challenges a declinging one and the two approach equilibrium.
looks to future to see instability
number of states holding significant power in the international system
uni, bi, tri, multipolar
attack on a country that is preparing to attack you (i.e. Israel 1967 when Egyptian forces assembled in Sinai peninsula and Israel struck first)
when cooperation to solve initial problems creates further problems that require expanded cooperation
once a country starts on a certain path, it accumulates advantages/disadv.s along that path
preventing attack by threatening relatiation against potential attacker
Minimum- only requires few nukes that can survive initial attack and then be deployed.
Extended- extending deterrence to defend other countries, not just your own
exist for everyone, cannot be appropriated, not zero sum.
clean air, global warming,
(liberal vs. realist)
total gain over what each had before vs. what one state gains relative to another.
ideals that govern procedural/substantive terms of state behavior, i.e. reciprocity or human rights
substantive vs. procedural
I perspective in which states acquire their identies through discourse; who they are is relative to other states/entities.
as opposed to: agent-oriented
attractiveness of the ideas of a country
theory that emphasizes conflictual relationship btw capitalism and communism in international system (leading to triumph of communism)
also sees permament revolution on part of working class until all bourgeois are gone
collections of city-states united for protection or trade
cities controlled by sovereign governments
venice, florence, genoa, milan
free-riding strategy wherein one country allows others to fight conflicts while it stays on sidelines
-similar time period (400 BCE)
-both resulted in strongly centralized power (Ch'in and AtheGreat)
customs union inn 1830s that lowered trade barriers btw prussia and german states, facilitating industrial exploooosion
led to rise of german power pre-WWI
The Tragedy of Great Power Politics
realist, rejects liberal
diplomatic telegram in 1946 outlining US-Soveit conflict and arguing for containment
-focus on self improvement and containing russia (allow communism to fail)
1945-1989 (fall of Berlin wall) or 1991 (end of Soviet union)
btw US and soviet union, resulted in arms buildup, international conflicts and proxy wars
counterforce-aimed at weapons
countervalue-aimed at civilian stuff
concentrating on central points of conflict and not spreading it to toher regions
confronting disputes early in peripheral and former colonial areas and preventing them from spreading to central players in europe