Who: Congress, immigrants, those over 21
What: Act granting those over 21 160 acres of land for a small fee in return for 5 years of continuous residence on that land
Where: American West
Significance: Revival of the classic American Dream of independence and self-sustenance; culmination of demands for cheap land that results in over 370,000 farms. Motivated much of the westward movement of the post Civil War period
What: gave the gov the right to survey Indian lands and break into individual plots for Indian families; Indians that accepted the land became US citizens, and all leftover land was sold to whites.
Where: Indian Lands
Significance: Designed to assimilate Indians into American Society; however, very few Native Americans took the offer, instead preferring their tribal identity. Resulted in the loss of more than half of the land in Native possession and the erosion of Native cultural traditions
What: First trust; led by board of 9 trustees appointed by Rockefeller; controlled 80% of oil refining
Significance: 1) changed how US did business- origin of trust movement that would eventually result in much controversy 2) led to corruption and accumulation of massive wealth in the hands of very few people
Who: Congress, fueled by Western farmers/businesses angry about the Wabash case
What: Act that required railroads to offer 1) reasonable rates 2) public display of rates 3) no more rebates
Significance: Showed another departure from the original laissez-faire economic policy; though unsuccessful (the commission lacked executive power), it set the precedent for later attempts at regulation
Who: mostly Catholic or Jewish immigrants from eastern Slavic countries and Italy (SOUTHERN & EASTERN EUROPEANS)
What: Huge increase in immigration from S. & E. that overtook German, Irish, and English immigration to the U.S.
When: 1880s onwards
Significance: New immigrants were culturally and ethnically different from both the older northern and western European immigrants and Americans; they resisted assimilation and generally settled together. They remained separate by language and traditions from American society, which would influence future events, such as the struggle of labor unions to get off the ground
Who: strikers, police, anarchists
What: During a labor protest for an 8 hour work week, a bomb was thrown at police; killed protesters and police and led to the apprehension of 8 anarchists, 4 of which were executed.
When: May 4, 1886
Significance: Although there was no direct evidence against the anarchists, they became associated with the labor movement because of their convictions which in turn greatly damaged the image and credibility of the labor movement
Who: woman African American activist
What: worked against lynching and published “Southern Horrors: Lynch Law and All Its Phases: 1892”
Where: mostly in South (U.S.)
When: late 1800s (and into early 1900s)
Significance: one of first women activists
Who: Congress, Homer Plessy
What: Citizens Committee of blacks from New Orleans challenging law that required railroad companies to maintain a separate car or section for black passengers.
Significance: justified “separate but equal” philosophy, sped up spread of Jim Crow laws, applied to all races (Hispanics and Asians).
Who: Teddy Roosevelt
What: An addition to the Monroe Doctrine in concern to European imperialism. Teddy wanted to keep the Europeans at bay since many Latin American countries had loans from European countries.
Where: Western Hemisphere
Significance: Told Latin American countries to keep act together financially or else the U.S would intervene. US had right to exercise “international police power” in the Western Hemisphere to defend against European intervention.
Who: Walter Rauschenbusch
What: Movement based on a theological doctrine stating that churches should focus on the social aims of Christ and make efforts to make themselves relevant to the outside world. Sought to reform society instead of just individuals
Where: Begun in NYC
When: early 20th century
Significance: 1) reflected wave of Progressive ideals 2) Departure from Victorian ideals and Social Darwinism; shift toward belief in problems with the system rather than individuals' fitness
Who: Farmers and rural residents
What: Movement that served as the political manifestation of the Farmers Alliances and met with local successes, called for an activist government with 1) direct democracy 2) secret ballots 3) graduated income tax 4) Silver standard
Where: Mid-West, South; basically rural farming regions
Significance: First group that offered a coherent alternative vision of America that suggested significant change in how the country was run
William Jennings Bryan’s “Cross of Gold” Speech
Who: William Jennings Bryan’s speech to become the official candidate for the 1896 presidential Elections
What: Speech that talked about the gold standard. Bryan said that the gold standard represented the elite and wealthy. It would “crucify” the everyday worker.
Reflected the feelings of the south and the west who felt the financial hardships of the times.
Who: President Wilson, Americans, Germans, British
What: A British liner that was secretly carrying war supplies to the British that was sunken by a German U-Boat, resulting in the deaths of 1200, including 128 Americans
Where: Off the coast of Ireland
When: May 6, 1915
Significance: Raised public support for the war and forced President Wilson to call for a larger standing army which would be put to use 2 years later after the interception of the Zimmermann Telegram. Also shows US’s preference of the Allies over Germany during the early part of the war
Who: Bernard Baruch
What: Federal organization established to allocate resources for the war effort, determining prices and supplies for various products
Significance: Big departure from the previous ideals of laissez-faire economics and small government
Who: President Wilson, countries around the world
What: A proposed international organization that was one of Wilson’s 14 points given before the end of the war. The organization was created with the intent of enforcing the other 14 points, and in reality served to mediate international dispute (somewhat ineffectively) and as a trade commission for the world
Significance: Although it was proposed by Wilson, the US did not join, and this reflected the US’s unwillingness to accept its new role as a major world power in an increasingly connected post-war world
Who: Mitchell Palmer, radicals throughout the country
What: Mass hysteria that resulted in the aftermath of the Communist revolution in Russia and mail bombs that implicated Communists in the US. Created fear among many Americans that Communist and other radicals in the US posed similar violent threats to national order. “Reds” received the blame for many disturbances
Significance: 1) resulted in the breach of many basic American rights (no habeas corpus for suspected radicals, freedom of speech for leftist organizations was denied) 2) labor movements and immigrants became increasingly associated with the “Reds” and radical ideologies in general
Who: Successful American capitalist, anti-Semitic
What: Developed and implemented the assembly line method of production which cut production time and costs dramatically. Ford paid his workers a remarkable $5 a day, which provided him with a loyal workforce, sympathetic public image, and a market for his goods
Where: Detroit, assembly line strategy spread to industries around the world
Significance: 1) used ideals of scientific management to increase efficiency (Progressive ideal) 2) revolutionized the industrial manufacturing process
Who: Pioneer in the realm of birth control, born into an Irish Catholic family
What: Opened an illegal clinic that provided contraceptive devices and information about birth control. Later founded the American Birth Control League, which became Planned Parenthood
When: 1920s onwards
Significance: 1) faced great risks and many arrests to spread illegal information; aided the development of liberated women who began to exercise their new-found independence 2) important in bringing the issue to the public, eventually resulted in changes in state legislature about birth control
Who: Alain Locke, Langston Hughes, other African American artists
What: African American cultural artistic movement that celebrate black culture and pride and sought to reclaim African roots. Short-lived because the black middle class was small and required the support of white patrons
Where: Harlem, the “promised land”
When: 1920s and 1930s
Who: Veterans came home from and lost their jobs. They wanted their bonus for their service early
What: 17000 soldiers and their families marched to Washington DC and set up a camp right outside the city limits. (Bonus City)
Congress killed the bill that allowed them to get their bonus early but gave the families a free Railroad ticket home. Most took this but some stayed.
They wouldn’t leave so the Army was sent out made them leave.
What: part of First New Deal; gave fed money to states for the provision of relief and conservation programs
When: May 1933
Significance: attempt to assist current state of the U.S.