The people who dominated the Canaanite seacoast and defeated the Israelites in 1050 B.C.E.
What ruler of the eighth century B.C.E. transformed the structure of the Assyrian state and expanded its empire?
Around 3150 B.C.E., King Narmer united Upper and Lower Egypt and founded a new capital atMemphis
The written script of Mesopotamian civilizations
group that destroyed the kingdom of Israel in 722 B.C.E.
The Hebrews, after leaving Egypt, migrated to
Which of King David's sons elevated the kingdom of Israel to its greatest power and prestige?
In 586 B.C.E. the kingdom of Judah was conquered by the New Babylonian Empire under the leadership of
The Egyptian king who built the first known pyramid was
The building of the great pyramids at Sakkara and outside Memphis took place during the time of the
In the eleventh century B.C.E., the Israelites transformed their political system from a confederation of loosely organized tribes into a(n)
The founder of the first unified Akkadian state was
The practice of staying put and exploiting various sources of food instead of constantly traveling is called
Around 3500 B.C.E., the first civilization was established in the region of Mesopotamia called
In addition to Hammurabi's code, the Old Babylonian Empire is also recognized for its contribution in the area of
Who was the famous king and law-codifier who ruled during the Old Babylonian Empire?
Maat is an Egyptian term meaning
What Greek city-state destroyed the foundation of Spartan militarism?
The Persian emperor who launched the second invasion of the Greek mainland in 481 B.C.E., ultimately burning Athens to the ground, was
The Spartan king responsible for the defense of the pass at Thermopylae during the second Persian invasion of Greece was
What was the name for foreigners living in Athens who could neither own land nor participate directly in politics?
The kingdom that moved into the power vacuum left by warring Greeks was
What controversial Athenian philosopher engaged in the search for moral self-enlightenment by questioning all who claimed to possess wisdom?
Slaves made up approximately what proportion of the population of Attica?
Most of the leaders of fifth-century Athens came from the
Though Persia lost the Persian Wars, ultimately it gained a measure of influence in Greek affairs by allying with ________ in the Peloponnesian Wars.
Which of the following wrote a history of the Peloponnesian War?
Because Athenian political offices were filled by lot and changed frequently, leadership was often provided by
The Athenians defeated the Persians in 490 B.C.E. at the battle of
What city was famous for its great library of the ancient world?
The author of the fundamental textbook on geometry created during the Hellenistic period was
Among the Jews, which group sought to violently push out the Romans?
Which of the following was a reform proposed by Gaius Gracchus?
The Roman senators responded to Tiberius Gracchus
by fearing him as a democratic demagogue seeking to establish a tyranny.
In order to restore the traditional values of the Roman Republic, Augustus did all of the following EXCEPT
Early Christian religious communities might best be described as?
A variety of communities with varying beliefs and interpretations existed.
Which of the following was NOT a component of Octavian's power base after his defeat of Mark Antony?
His powerful alliances with the Ptolemaic rulers of Egypt
Augustus transformed the Roman Senate in all of the following ways EXCEPT
increasing its membership to incorporate all factions in the Roman spectrum.
Some emperors persecuted the Christians because, unlike Jews, Christians
refused to acknowledge the existence of the other gods and to participate in the cult of the deified emperors.
The smooth functioning of the empire after Augustus' death was likely due to
the soundness of Augustus' constitutional changes and the vested interests that aristocratic supporters had in them.
When supporters of Pompey relieved Julius Caesar of his command in Gaul and ordered him to return to Rome, Caesar
returned to Rome with his legions and initiated a civil war.
Late republican sculpture could be described as having which characteristics?
Having bodies based on the Hellenistic ideal, but portrait heads
Which of the following was NOT a reform passed by Sulla?
Where was Hadrian's Wall located?
Which of the following was a reform passed by Caesar?
Augustus reformed the military in all of the following ways EXCEPT
recruiting only non-Roman auxillaries for future troops
The first Christian groups, led by Peter,
initiated the sacraments of baptism and communion but otherwise remained entirely within the Jewish tradition.
The Great Mosque of Damascus in Syria is symbolic of
the continuity of religious worship and the common taste for classical art.
Muhammad organized his followers into a community that transcended the old ties of tribe and clan called the
All of the following were major contributors to Justinian's reign EXCEPT
Athanasius, who developed the orthodox definition of the Trinity.
All of the following areas were restored to the Byzantine Empire during Justinian's reign EXCEPT
The basic administrative unit of the Byzantine Empire after the seventh century was a military district called the
According to Islamic orthodoxy, which statement best describes the Qur'an?
It is an exact and complete revelation without need for interpretation.
In what area did Muslim intellectuals make perhaps the greatest advances?
Muhammad's journey from Mecca to govern in Medina is called the
In 1204 the Fourth Crusade from Venice was directed not at the Holy Lands but at ________, which was captured, pillaged and briefly ruled over.
Under what dynasty did Byzantium dominate the Mediterranean during the tenth and eleventh centuries?
All of the following caused divisiveness in the Byzantine Empire EXCEPT
The last Abbasid caliph was executed by an invading army of
All of the following helped bring down the Byzantine Empire EXCEPT
the inability of the emperors to hire mercenary armies
What was Muhammad's occupation at the time of his revelation?
The final downfall of the Byzantine Empire began under Emperor Romanus IV, following his defeat at the battle of
From the seventh to the tenth centuries while western Europe was politically decentralized Byzantium did all of the following EXCEPT
conquer all of western Europe with the exception of Britain.
What was the drawback of Justinian's reconquest?
The cost of his campaigns bankrupted his successors.
What material originally from China became so valued that it was worth its weight in gold?
Belief that legitimate leadership of Islam could only come from the house of 'Ali created the religious and political sect called the
Muslim raiders collapsed these two empires, creating in essence an Islamic Empire from their remains.