A consumer may not think of household cleaning products [being/as] hazardous.
[with the aim of/with the aim to] decreasing
a policy [,the aim of which is the /aimed at] decreasing
"the aim of which" is awkward and wordy
what is preferred to "is capable of being"
Twenty-two feet long and 10 feet in diameter, the AM-1 is one of the many new satellites that are part of a 15-year [effort of subjecting/effort to subject] the interactions of Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and land surfaces to detailed scrutiny from space.
prohibit X [from/to] Y.
prohibit X from Y
make this sentence that uses "expected" active:
payments are not to be expected when they are due
[the bank] does not expect payments when they are due
Idioms with built-in parallel structure
p. 255 mgmat SC guide (Just as...., just as...so too/to?...)
X acts as Y As X, so Y Compared to X, Y Consider X Y In contrast to X, Y Declare X Y Distinguish X from Y Estimate X to be Y X instead of Y X is known to be Y X is less than Y Make X Y Mistake X for Y X is same as Y
What are the parallel structures for "rather than" and "instead of"?
X rather than Y
X instead of Y
Australian egg-laying mammals of today are a branch of the main stem of mammalian evolution rather than a type that developed [independently from/independent of] a common ancestor of mammals more than 220 million years ago.
When would you use the wrong one?
1. independently describes "developed."
2. "from" gives the independent status a benchmark
Also, "independent of" modifies a noun and means to not be dependent on something/someone...example: Independent of her father, he paid for his own education.
what is preferred to "on account of"
ex: Students new to the study of Shakespeare can quickly learn to recognize the placement of an individual play within the chronology of composition [on account of having/because there is] more prose than poetry in the later plays than in the earlier plays.
if smoking is attributed [to/as the cause of] tobacco companies
X is attributed to Y
Attribute X to Y
When do you use "because" vs. "because of"
"because of" precedes a noun: I wore a raincoat because of the rain.
"because" precedes an action: I wore a raincoat because it rained.
which is used to describe frequency, and which is used to describe price?
Rate of = frequency
Rate for = price (ex. insurance)
Congress called a convention [to consider/for considering] possible amendments.
I have suffered a loss [in/of] strength.
"loss of" is a decline of a quality.
They have suffered a loss [in/of] the euro.
"loss in" means decline of an investment
Some Governments substitute living allowances [for/in place of] the paychecks of their employees.
Substitute X for Y
what is preferred to "whereby"
"in which" or "where"
Whereby is confusing and thus not used often; it means "by which, through, by means of" example sentence: We have a new computer system whereby we can track all sales and shipments at all times.
Create a version of this sentence that doesn't use "whereby"
We have a new computer system whereby we can track all sales and shipments at all times.
We have a new computer system that allows us to track all sales and shipments at all times.
We have a new computer system, making it possible to track all sales and shipments at all times.
Which and why?
The parachutelike membranes of Africa’s scaly-tailed flying squirrels differ from those of the flying squirrels in the family Sciuridae [in that/because] they are attached to a cartilage rod at the elbow rather than at the wrist.
"in that" because it answers the question "how, exactly?
"because" answers WHY?
..."because of" is more closely related to "in that" ...because of their attachment to a...
Which and why?
Inuits of the Bering Sea were [in isolation from/isolated from] contact with the Europeans.
idiomatic construction: isolate/ed from
What is wrong with this sentence?
The sun is the source not only of heat and light, but also a continuos stream of atomic particles known as the solar wind.
"of" needs to follow "but also" to make X and Y parallel in the "not only X, but also Y" construction
"not only of heat and light, but also of a continuous stream of atomic particles....
What is the issue with this sentence and how should you fix it?
According to some economists, the July decrease in unemployment to what would be the lowest level in two years suggests that the gradual improvement in the job market is continuing.
issue: The later part of the sentence is factual--"is continuing." "WOULD" is used for hypothetical situations, not factual situations, so the use of "would" is illogical here.
fix: remove "what would"
to express duration in combination with the word "host," which is correct
host for/host in
The freshwater snails are the parasite's hosts for/in part of its lifecycle.
what is preferred to "due to the fact that" ?
What's the difference between "an account of" and "account for"?
"An account of" is a narrative record.
"account for" means to be the cause of. ex: Bad weather accounted for the long day.
Which and why?
Any apparent connection [of/between] the eating of highly processed foods and excelling at sports is purely coincidental.
idiomatic construction: connection between X and Y
Distinguish X from Y or
Distinguish between X and Y?
distinguish BETWEEN X and Y
the distinction of X and Y
the distinction between X and Y
the distinction BETWEEN X and Y
what's the difference between "disadvantaged" and "to be at a disadvantage"
"disadvantaged" is typically used in a socio-economic context whereas "to be at a disadvantage" means to have less of an advantage relative to others
Aristotle credited Aeschylus [as/with] having added a second actor to vary the exchanges between the protagonist and the chorus.
She gave money [so/so that] the school could offer scholarships.
"so that" is used to show purpose
The sauce was so hot as to burn my mouth.
Wrong: The sauce had so much heat as to burn my mouth.
Wrong: The sauce had such heat as to burn my mouth
probably not tested
which is correct:
The dinosaurs appeared as smart.
The dinosaurs appear to have been relatively smart.
appear to have been
- "appear as" means to show up as: imperfections show up as tiny crackers.
- "appear" means "seems"--he appears confused. wrong: he appears as confused.
[Aware/with an awareness] of the danger, he fled.
DO NOT USE "WITH" before "aware"
He conceives of architecture to be/as a dialogue.
NEVER "conceives of X to be Y"
The judge considersthe law [nothing/as/as if it were/as being/to be] illegal.
Consider X Y.
I consider her a friend.
I consider her intelligent.
I consider illegal the law passed last week by the new regime.
The law is considered illegal.
The danger willcontinue [to grow/its growing/growth].
[As contrasted with/in contrast with/in contrast to] the zoo, the park charges no admission.
In contrast WITH X, Y
In contrast TO X, Y.
what's wrong, how should you fix it?
In contrast to the zoo charging commission, the park does not.
The idiom is "in contrast to x, y" and x & y must be parallel. "The zoo charging" is not parallel with "the park"
fix: In contrast to the zoo, the park charges no commission.
You could possibly do anything you want.
You could do anything you want?
You could do..
"could" and "possibly" together are redundant.
The window is designed [so that it opens/so as to open/to open].
The window is designed to open.
The winner was determined [by/through/from] a coin toss.
Shebelieves thatGary is right.
She believesGary to be right.
Gary is believedto be right.
It is believedthat Gary is right.
suspect: Gary is believe by her to be right.
which is preferred:
comparably OR to a comparable extent
We do not doubt [whether/that] the apples are ripe.
She doubts [whether/that] Jan will arrive on time.
(the GMAT claims that DOUBT, used in a positive statement without NOT or NO, should be followed by whether or if, NOT that)
The deficit is due to overspending, we have a deficit.
Due to the fact that politicians spend money, we have a deficit.
"Due to the fact that" is incorrect.
Right: The deficit is due to overspending (=results from).
Right: Our policy will not cover damagedue to fire (=resulting from).
Right: Because politicians spend money, we have a deficit.
Wrong: Due to politicians spending money, we have a deficit.
Wrong: Due to the fact that politicians spend money, we have a deficit.
There are differences between what you and I can do.
differences "between X and Y"--X&Y need to be parallel; however "I can" is not parallel with "what you."
fix: between what you can do and what I can do.
The book was short enough [for me to/that I could] read it in a night.
for me to
Right: The book was short enoughto read in a night.
Right: The book was short enough for me to read in a night.
Wrong: The book was so short enough that I could read it in a night.
Wrong: The book was short enough for it to be read in a night.
Wrong: The book was short enough so that i could read it in a night.
The book was short enough as to be read in a night.
NOT: equipped for
They are equipped to fight on any terrain.
She estimates the cost at tend dollars.
She estimates the cost to be tend dollars.
estimates TO BE
not estimates at
We expend energy on/for neighborhood development.
Right: We enjoyed the film to some extent.
Right: "Thumbs part up" is the extent to which we enjoyed the film.
"Extent that" is suspect.
Provided that = only if.
I can eat ice cream, provided that my doctor approves.
Inflation can hurt profits if costs increase.
WRONG: I can eat ice cream, provided my doctor approves (requires that).
She drank coffee in oder to stay awake.
She drank coffee to stay awake.
Wrong: Coffee was drunk by her in order to stay awake--> coffee cannot stay awake.
His example influenced me.
Wrong: His example was influential on me.
His example inspired me.
Wrong: His example was inspirational to me.
These groups interact [among/with] one another.
The interaction of two nuclei colliding releases energy.
The interaction where two nuclei collide releases energy.
She invested funds in research to study cancer.
She invested funds for/into research.
Music is a means [to/for/of] improved cognition.
The academy gave senior cadets the privilege to dance.
The academy gave senior cadets dancing privileges.
She pronounced the book a triumph.
She pronounced the book as a triumph.
Pronounced X Y
Pronounced the book as a triumph.
This problem has the rank of one of the worse we have seen.
This problem ranks as one of the worse we have seen.
This observation indicates a reason [nothing/that] he is here.
This term [is in reference to/refers to] a kind of disease.
regard X as Y
not: regarded that it is
She requires that her friend [do/does] work.
or, "she requires her friend to do work."
The government imposed restrictions [for/on] the price of gasoline.
Right: The judge ruledthat the plaintiff was in contempt.
Wrong: The judge ruled the plaintiff to be in contempt.
Right: This result seems to demonstrate the new theory.
Right: It seems as if this result demonstrates the new theory.
Wrong: This result seems as if it demonstrates the new theory.
Right: It seems that this result demonstrates the new theory. Wrong: This result seemslike it demonstrates the new theory.
[Every company has/all companies have] SIMILAR issues.
All companies have...
"all" needs to be plural to match "issues"
The owner requested that the car should be taken to the mechanic.
A car should be taken to the mechanic frequently (should=obligation).
A car SHOULD be taken...
She succeeded [to reach/in reaching] the summing.
succeeded in reaching
The intervention is targeted [to/at] a specific misbehavior.
She was trained [in running/to run] a division.
trained IN running
They will try [and/to] build a company.
Leaves fall twice as quickly as [they grow/their rate of growth].
Leaves falltwice as quickly as they grow.
He uses a hammer [to break/for breaking] a board.
He uses the hammer like a weapon.
He uses the hammer as a weapon.
I viewed this process [as/to be] a mistake.
I viewed this process as a mistake.
I don't know [if/whether] I will go.
("if" requires a consequence)
Whether [nothing/they be] trash or treasure, the recyclables must go.
Whether trash or treasure...
The committee worried [over/about] increased prices.
What's the correct use of "allows for"?
The holiday ALLOWS FOR Maria TO WATCH the movie.
OR: The demolition of the old building ALLOWS FOR new construction.
Allows for new construction.
Allow for = permits the existence of
Other: The holiday allowsMariato watch the movie today. OR: Maria was allowed to watch the movie.
AS we did last year, we will win this year.
JUST AS we did last year, we will win this year.
as=in the same way
just as=in the exact same way
My first job was an apprenticeship of a sketch artist.
My first job was an apprenticeship as a sketch artist.
What does "as" mean?
As I had already paid, I was unconcerned.
as = because/since
We have AS MANY apples AS OR MORE apples THAN you have.
We have AT LEAST AS MANY apples as you have.
at least as many.
as many or more = AT LEAST AS MANY
We haveAS MANY apples AS THERE need to be cooked.
We have AS MANY apples AS need to be cooked.
We have as many apples as need to be cooked.
Cheese is NOT SO great AS people say.
Cheese is NOT AS great AS people say.
not as great as
We have ten apples, ABOUT EQUIVALENT TO what we picked yesterday.
We have ten apples, about AS MANY AS what we picked yesterday.
as many as
apples are countable, so need "as many as"
We have THREE TIMES AS MANY MORE pears as you have.
We have three times AS MANY pears as you have.
as many pears as
His knowledge springs NOTfrom experience ASfrom schooling.
His knowledge springs NOT SO MUCH from experience ASfrom schooling.
Not so much from X as from Y.
He wins frequently, AS MUCH because he plays AS hard AS because he cheats.
We wins frequently, as much because he plays so hard as because he cheats.
You practice, SO shall you play.
AS you practice, SO shall you play.
AS you practice, SO shall you play.
As....so = in the same way or manner.
Just as trams were late yesterday, so too are they late today.
Justlike you practice, so shall you play.
Justas you practice, so shall you play.
Like cannot compare actions (practice).
When compared to horses, zebras are vicious.
In comparison with/to horses, zebras are vicious.
In comparison with/to. WRONG: Zebras are more vicious compared to horses--> incorrectly comparing "vicious" to "horses"
I love the DISCOVERY OF carbon BEING ABLE (or ABILITY) TO from soccer-ball molecules.
I love the DISCOVERY THAT carbon CAN form soccer-ball molecules.
Discovery THAT carbon CAN.
These groups often INTERACT AMONG ONE ANOTHER.
These groups often INTERACT WITH ONE ANOTHER.
They avoided the arcade and ratherwent to a movie.
They avoided the arcade and INSTEADwent to a movie.
[Resulting from/as a result of] our work, our wealth grew.
As a result of.
with a resulting
because of the result of.
The result of our was was our wealth grew.
The result of our work was THAT wealth grew.
The result was THAT.
Matt drives Ferraris and the like.
Matt drives fast cars, SUCH AS Ferraris.
will + should is
The ability of the plants to grow is because the sun shines.
Plants grow, FOR the sun shines.
Because of the sun, plants grow.
Plants grow because the sun shines.
All work EXCEPT for "the ability + Because" = redundant.
The manager [is able to/can] run the plan.
The manager [is capable of running/can run] the plan.
The manager [has the ability to/can] run the plan.
The manger [has the capability of running/can run] the plant.
It is possible for the plant to cause damage.
The plan can cause damage.
The plan [has the possibility of causing/can cause] damage.
He ensures that the deadlines ARE/WILL BE met.
He ensures that the deadlines MUST be/SHOULD be met.
Ensures + must or should is contradictory.
Except for a concert performance that the composer himself staged, the opera was not produced....OR....Except for a concert performance being staged by the composer himself,the opera was not produced....
That the composer staged.
Correct usage of the word being: a) Being infected does not make you sick. OR b) The judges saw the horses being led to the stables.
they are still prized [as game animals/as being a game animal]
as game animals
Analysts blamed May's sluggish retail sales on weather, [colder and wetter/being colder and wetter] than...
colder and wetter
Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, its acoustic energy prevented from [dissipating/being dissipated] by...
Polio [is capable of being/could be] brought into the country.
Correct use of "with":
The lions growled, with their fur standing on end.
The settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a spectacular scale, with more than 75 carefully engineered structures.
WRONG--why?: An array of buoys collects and transmits data on long-term interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere, with interactions affecting global climate.
Why--"with" incorrectly modifies "collects and transmits"