Alcohol is considered a nutrient because it contains 7kilocalories per gram. T or F
All energy-yielding nutrients provide the same amount of energy(kcals) per gram of weight. T or F
When conducting experimental research, the purpose of having acontrol group is to…
Provide a baseline or standard for comparison with the groupreceiving the treatment or intervention
Suppose you are conducting a study on the relationship betweeniron and vitamin C intake and the rate of infections in a small population ofcollege students. Which of the following methods would best assess the typicalnutrient intake of the participants?
Obtain one 24-Hour Recall from each participant during thestudy.
Take the participants out to lunch and observe what each oneorders.
Have the participants fill out a Food Frequency Questionnaire.
Interview immediate family members of each participant and askabout food dislikes.
If anthropemetric data is collected during a study, then_________ is/are obtained or conducted.
Body Measurements (height, weight, head circumference, etc)
One of the early signs of cardiovascular disease is an increasein the blood LDL cholesterol level. The nutrition assessment method that wouldbest detect this would be…
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)was established to…
Determine our nation's nutritional status and monitor therelationship between diet and disease over time
Published in a peer-reviewed journal
The advantages of consulting with a Registered Dietitian (RD)for nutrition counseling and assessment include:
RDs are trained to perform accurate nutritional assessments
RDs are trained to administer appropriate medical nutritiontherapy
RDs must satisfy educational requirements established by the ADA(American Dietetic Association)Allof the Above
The area on the food label that provides a list of specificnutrients obtained in one serving of the food is referred to as
According to recent studies, eating breakfast is an effectiveway to promote weight loss and provide satiety throughout the day. T or F
If the label on your oatmeal says, "3 grams of solublefiber daily from oatmeal, in a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, mayreduce the risk of heart disease," this statement would be an example ofa(n)…
Which of the following is not one of the key principles ofhealthy eating addressed in your textbook?
Which of the following is/are (an) example(s) of a"nutrient-dense" food?
All of the Above
The remaining kilocalories in an individual's daily energy(kcal) allowance after their nutrient needs have been met is referred to as…
What is the difference between nutrient density (ND) and energydensity (ED)?
ND refers to foods that are high in nutrients (such as vitaminsand minerals) and low in kilocalories; ED refers to foods high in energy andlow in volume/weight.
Nutrient-dense foods are low in fat and added sugar and high inkilocalories (energy). T or F
Although more energy dense, one doughnut has a lower satietyindex than one banana. T or F
Which agency is responsible for the development of Daily Values(DVs) on the Nutrition Facts Label on foods?
FDA (Food and Drug Administration)
The main difference between the Estimated Average Requirement(EAR) and the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) nutrient recommendations is:
RDA is set for nearly all (97 to 98%) of the healthy individualsin a specific population (based on age and gender). EAR is set to cover thenutrient needs of 50% of the healthy individuals in a specific population(based on age and gender).
20 to 35%
Which of the following reflects the amount of energy (kcals) anindividual needs per day?
Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)
240 to 840 kilocalories
Which of the following agencies enforces and regulates theinformation on food labels?
Ingredients on the food label are listed in descending order byweight, with the heaviest items listed first.
The Daily Values on a food label are based on a ______ kcaldiet.
A percent daily value (%DV) of 20% or higher for iron, calcium,Vitamin A, or Vitamin C on a food label would be considered “high”. T or F
Daily Values (DVs) are listed on a nutrition label for transfat, sugars, and protein. T or F
Whichof the following occurs if the epiglottis does not function properly?
Theprimary chemical reaction during enzymatic digestion is
Themajority of digestive enzymes are produced in the
Whichone of the following is likely to occur without adequate saliva?
Possibledamage to tissue lining the esophagus
Inabilityto taste food
All ofthe Above
Heartburnresults from the improper functioning of which one of the following?
Whichsequence of events is in the correct order?
Digestion,Transport, Absorption, Elimination
Digestion,Elimination, Absorption, Transport
Digestion,Absorption, Transport, Elimination
Digestion,Absorption, Elimination, Transport
Digestion, Absorption, Transport, Elimination
What isthe role of a sphincter?
Itregulates the directional flow of gastrointestinal contents.
Whichof the following statements would be true if a significant length of the smallintestine was not functioning properly?
Onlydigestion would be affected
Onlyabsorption would be affected
Bothdigestion and absorption would be affected
Neitherdigestion nor absorption would be affected
Both digestion and absorption would be affected
SmallIntestine to Large Intestine
What isprimarily absorbed in the large intestine?
Whichof the following statements is true about the gallbladder?
Itproduces bile (needed for lipid digestion)
Itsecretes digestive enzymes into the stomach
It islocated at the pharynx
Itstores bile and releases it into the small intestine
Peristalsisand segmentation are two types of synchronized muscle contractions that resultin food being propelled through the GI tract. T or F
Bileacts as a(an)
Whichof the following statements best describes the enterohepatic circulation?
It isthe movement of fat-soluble vitamins from intestine to liver.
It isthe recycling of bile between intestine and liver.
It isthe movement of all nutrients from intestine to liver.
None ofthe above relates to the enterohepatic circulation.
It is the recycling of bile between intestine and liver.
Pepsinis an enzyme that's active in the _______ and required for protein digestion.
Therelease of bicarbonate by the pancreas to neutralize chyme as it enters theduodenum segment of the small intestine is stimulated by which of the followinghormones?
None ofthe Above
Bicarbonateions produced by the salivary glands and pancreas neutralize and provide afavorable pH for enzyme action. T or F
Thistype of absorption requires energy (ATP) because particles move against the concentrationgradient to cross the membrane barrier.
Supposethat one of your friends is diagnosed with gallbladder disease and told thateventually, they'll have to have their gallbladder removed. If they asked youabout the implications, what could you tell them?
Theirliver would continue to produce bile but it would be secreted directly into theduodenum.
Treatmentrecommended for constipation includes all of the following EXCEPT
All ofthe following are symptoms of hypoglycemia (low blood glucose) EXCEPT
All ofthe following are health benefits of soluble fiber EXCEPT:
HelpsStabilize Blood Glucose
Carbohydratesfunction in the body to
Glucoseis the preferred source of energy for the brain and red blood cells. T or F
Insolublefiber can help to reduce constipation. T or F
Themajority of carbohydrate digestion occurs in the
Whichof the following is/are (a) symptom(s) of lactose intolerance or maldigestion?
All ofthe Above
A20-ounce bottle of a typical soft drink contains about ________ teaspoons ofsugar.
Enrichedgrains contain the same nutrients as whole grains. T or F
Whichof the following sugars is the sweetest?
Thestorage form of carbohydrates in animals (and humans) is
Whichof the following is a characteristic of Type 1 Diabetes?
Inadequateamounts of insulin are produced
Itsonset is usually later in life (typically after age 20)
It isassociated with obesity
Cellsbecome resistant to insulin
All ofthe following are simple carbohydrates EXCEPT
Onceabsorbed, all monosaccharides are converted to ________ by the liver:
Accordingto the DRIs, adults and children should consume ______ grams of carbohydrateper day.
Whichof the following food items would have the least amount of lactose?
Whichof the following components of a wheat kernel contains the most fiber?
All ofthe Above
Carbohydratescan be converted into glycogen for short-term energy storage in the liver andmuscle cells. When the capacity for glycogen storage is reached, excess glucoseis converted to ________ in the process of lipogenesis.
Insulinresistance occurs when…
Thepancreas stops making insulin
Cellsstop responding to insulin
Ketonebodies build up in the bloodNoneof the Above
Whichof the following statements is FALSE regarding Type 2 Diabetes?
It ismore prevalent than Type 1 Diabetes
It ismore common in individuals who are overweight or obese
It isalmost always caused by an autoimmune disease
It isoften associated with insulin resistance
It is almost always caused by an autoimmune disease
Which of the following is the primary site of macronutrient (carbohdydrate, protein, and fat) absorption?
Which of the following is the most recent addition to the Nutrient Facts Panel?
Which of the following is the most energy dense food?
Which of the following causes of death is least related to nutrition?
Improper functioning of the lower esophageal sphincter results in which of the following?
Which of the following is NOT listed on the nutrition facts panel?
Which of the following two food groups should make up more than half your plate at every meal according to current USDA recommendations?
Where do digestive juices from the gall bladder and pancreas enter the gastrointestinal tract?
Which of the following correctly defines the ratio of carbons (C) to water (H2O) in glucose and other monosaccharides?
Which of the following is lost during the refining process and is NOT added back into enriched wheat products?
According to the "finger-test" we learned about in recitation, what amount of fiber per serving do foods considered to be a good source of fiber contain?
Which of the following does NOT provide 4 kcalories per gram?
High fructose corn syrup is most similar in chemical structure to which of the following?
fructose can be converted into which of the following by the liver?
The American Heart Association recommends Americans consume no more than _____________ added sugar per day.
One of the 6 principles of healthy eating is moderation. Many registered dietitians refer to this principle as the 90:10 rule. describe the 90:10 rule!
How many kcalories does the entire container of the soup with the following label and information provide? The label states that the serving size is 1 cup and the container provides 2 servings. The Nutrition Facts Panel states there are 3 grams of total fat, 18 grams of total carbohydrates, and 9 grams of protein.
Which of the following is a TRUE statement regarding how trans fat must be listed on food labels.
Trans fats can raise LDLcholesterol levels and reduce HDL cholesterol levels more than saturated fats. T or F
All of the followingappear to have heart-healthy benefits EXCEPT
Which is the largest ofall lipoproteins in size?
Suppose your neighbor getsa blood lipid profile from their physician. If their HDL cholesterol is low andLDL cholesterol levels are high, they're doctor (or dietitian) would mostlikely recommend that they increase ________ fats and to decrease ________ fatsin their diet.
Which of the following canhelp reduce the risk of heart disease by increasing blood levels of HDLcholesterol?
Losing excess weight
All of the Above
Which of the following isTRUE of lipids?
Lipids are composed ofcarbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
Lipids are not essentialnutrients.
Lipids are hydrophilic(soluble in water).
Lipids are hydrophobic(not soluble in water).
The problem of rancidityof fatty acids (which produces an off-flavor in foods) be overcome by
Limiting exposure to heat,light, and oxygen
Adding antioxidants(vitamin C, vitamin E, etc)
The process ofhydrogenation
All of the Above
Aside from LDL and HDLcholesterol levels in blood, which of the following may be another emergingmarker for heart disease risk?
Which of the followingstatements about fatty acids is TRUE?
They are organic
They contain a methyl anda carboxyl group
They are the mostenergy-dense nutrient (contain the most kcals per gram)
All of the Above
How is cholesteroldifferent from triglycerides and phospholipids?
It does not have aglycerol backbone
The majority of fatdigestion occurs in the
Which of the followingstatements is true about the composition of lipoproteins?
HDL contains morecholesterol than LDL or VLDL
LDL contains morecholesterol than HDL or VLDL
LDL contains more proteinthan HDL
VLDL contains fewertriglycerides than HDL or LDL
LDL contains more cholesterol than HDL or VLDL
Lipoprotein lipase is anenzyme on the surface of cells that hydrolyzes (breaks down) fats transportedvia the lipoproteins. T or F
Which of the following isthe best and most reasonable recommendation for good health?
Limit cholesterol andsaturated fat
Eat saturated andunsaturated fats in equal proportions
Avoid all fat
None of the Above
Limit cholesterol and saturated fat
Which of the followingwould have the highest percentage of trans fat?
Crackers, Cookies, Pies,etc.
Crackers, Cookies, Pies, etc.
Which of the followingfood groups contains the highest amounts of NATURALLY occurring trans fattyacids (which do not have the same negative health effects as synthesizedtrans-fat)?
Meat and Dairy Products
Fruits and Vegetables
Meat and Dairy Products
Which of the following areall major sources of SATURATED fat?
Eggs, Meat, Milk,Shortening
Meat, Eggs, Milk, OliveOil
Meat, Milk, Cheese,Chocolate
Peanuts, Tuna, Flaxseed,Olive Oil
All of the followingconstitute a heart-healthy dietary change EXCEPT
Consuming foods rich insoluble fibers
Consuming fried foods as soonas they are prepared
Consuming at least twoservings per week of fatty fish
Consuming foods rich inlinolenic acid such as walnuts and flaxseeds
Consuming fried foods as soon as they are prepared
The nitrogen-containingpart of an amino acid is referred to as the ________ group.
Malnutrition that resultsfrom a severe deficiency in dietary protein but provides sufficientkilocalories is referred to as…
Which of the followingis/are (a) symptom(s) of Marasmus?
All of the Above
Proteins are made of whichof the following atoms?
Carbon And Hydrogen
Carbon, Hydrogen, AndOxygen
Hydrogen And Oxygen
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen,And Nitrogen
Amino acids containidentical groups EXCEPT for ______ -- which makes each amino acid unique.
A peptide bond is formedby a condensation reaction. T or F
Essential amino acids
Must be provided by thediet because they cannot be synthesized in the body
Do not need to be providedin the diet because they can be synthesized by the body
Are unlike nonessentialamino acids because they are the only ones needed by the body
Can be synthesized by thebody, EXCEPT in times of illness, when they must be consumed in the diet
The function ofhydrochloric acid (HCl) in the stomach is to
Begin the process ofprotein digestion
All of the Above
Transcription is animportant step in protein synthesis and occurs when…
Individual amino acids areretrieved and assembled by tRNA within cells
Ribosome organelles"decode" the mRNA strand
Coding information fromthe DNA sequence is copied or transferred to the mRNA strand
The DNA sequence exits thenucleus
Coding information from the DNA sequence is copied or transferred to the mRNA strand
Extra amino acids
A. Can be used forgluconeogenesis
B. Can be converted to bodyfat
C. Will result in extramuscle mass
D. Can be stored in the bodyfor long periods of time
E. A and B Only
Which of the following isa function of protein?
Antibodies in ImmuneSystem
All of the Above
Which of the following istrue regarding enzymes?
They are biologicalcatalysts that speed up reactions.
They are non-specific.
They are only used inanabolic reactions.
They are only used incatabolic reactions.
They are biological catalysts that speed up reactions.
Which of the followingis/are function(s) of protein in the body?
Growth and Repair
All of the Above
A vegetarian who avoidsmeat, fish, and poultry but includes milk and eggs in their diet is referred toas a
Animal foods are the onlynaturally occurring food source of which nutrient?
If used for energy,protein provides
3 kcal / gram
4 kcal / gram
7 kcal / gram
9 kcal / gram
Calculate the RDA forprotein (based on body weight) for a 22-year-old female who is 5 feet 4 inchestall and weighs 155 pounds. (Remember to convert from pounds to kilograms).
56 grams per day
A limiting amino acid is…
An essential amino acidthat is in shortest supply
Which of the following foods is highest in saturated fat and cholesterol?
Where in the gastrointestinal tract are proteins denatured?
Which of the following is the most nutrient dense and sustainable food source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)?
Walnuts are a good source of which of the following?
According to USU Prevention Specialist Ryan Barfuss, which of the following is equal to more than one standard "drink" of alcohol.
According to USU Prevention Specialist Ryan Barfuss, which of the following is NOT equivalent to 1 standard drink?
According to USU Prevention Specialist Ryan Barfuss, which of the following would be considered an episode of binge drinking?
It is dangerous to mix alcohol with which of the following?
Which of the following nutrients participates in beta oxidation in the mitochondria?
Which of the following is the common metabolic intermediate or "destination" for all energy yielding nutrients?