a) technology ? amount of parts per billion of noxious emissions during production
b) performance ? miles per gallon for cars
c) environmental ambience standards
d) fiscal authority of government ? taxes/spending
e) market incentives ? cap and trade
a) Regulatory role ? zoning, planning
b) Visionary role ? what the city will be like in the future
traditional core assumption is that are cities are expanding, the trend that has caused the academic planning community to reassess that core assumption is empirical evidence suggesting the opposite: cities are shrinking.
Hospitals placed on seaports ? first marine hospital was established to quarantine illness that might be brought in by sea-men.
a) Greenhouse gases
b) Various sources of energy (energy independence)
b) Complex, uncertain
d) open-system (permeable)
e) hierarchical system (layered)
100 nuclear power reactors are currently in the US, the last one was built in 1979 because of 3-mile island incident (partial core meltdown in nuclear reactor)
the global energy paradox is that energy has become more efficient and cheaper but people still use more of it ? paradox is explained by greater demand for energy (new technology) and also because since it is cheaper, it is valued less and used more generously