The most important facts are at the beginning of the story and more and more details are given further into the story.
The two-step flow process is when news from the mass media is passed along through any type of opinion leader (family, friend, classmate, celebrity, etc...).
Even though the news originally came from a mess media outlet, the person who passes the information along has the ability to selectively choose pieces of information to share. This can create the transmission of partial stories that do not represent the total story.
The “Daisy” ad was used in the 1964 presidential race. Democrats suggested Republican Barry Goldwater would make a reckless president who might start a nuclear war. The Daisy ad used the image of a mushroom cloud exploding in a cute little girl’s eye to scare Americans into rejecting Goldwater. The ad only ran once on paid television, the mass media trumpeted it at no charge to the Democrats. Benefiting from the “free media”.
The “Great Debate” occurred on September 26th, 1960 between John F. Kennedy and Richard M. Nixon. This is relevant because it was the first televised presidential debate.
“New media include not just the late night comics but all nontraditional media outlets...the new media include ‘talk radio and television, electronic town meetings, television news magazines, MTV (music television), print and electronic tabloids, and computer networks.’” - Jon Stewart, Obama not having to answer 'hard' questions
EX: When Obama was interviewed on Jon Stewart, Obama reached out to a younger crowd and Jon’s ratings skyrocketed. The two feed off of each other, hopefully for the benefit of both parties.
- A new style of journalism that arose in the 60s and 70s. Personalized reporting; inclusion of journalist’s personal role, opinions and actions as part of the story instead of trying to neutrally observe events
President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Campaigned in 1952 and took office in 1953. This was covered in a video we watched in class.
The publisher of the first newspaper in the United States. Publick Occurences was the title and it was distributed in Boston.
Newspapers, Broadsides, Pamphlets, Magazines, Books
They were two Washington Post journalists who discovered that the Nixon administration had been bugging political opponents and using secret slush funds of money to engage in illegal acts. The Watergate scandal was a key event during the era of watchdog journalism (1973-1991) and Bernstein and Woodward were the new icons for an era of journalists who instead of focusing on social and corporate questions were more interested in specific statements and actions by politicians.
In Slander, Coulter argues that the Liberal media treats conservatives unfairly. Her primary example is George W. Bush, saying that the media makes him appear as a fool. She also uses examples, comparing the treatment of Christians to that of Nazis, and says that the New York Times did not cover Dale Earnhardt’s death until two days after it happened
Chomsky and Herman argue that the Liberal Media is a myth as the media is subordinate to corporate and conservative interests. They say that if it were liberal it would address more liberal issues such as social security and military spending.
1). Ownership Filter – owners are generally more conservative
2). Advertising Filter – must take advertisers interests into consideration
3). News Makers Filter – reporters get information from powerful sources
4). News Shapers Filter – experts shape news discussion. Make it less progressive
5). Flak Filter – 3 kinds (Government, Business, Media Minority Groups),
Does not focus on what media does to the people, but what people do with the media. Media is seen as fulfilling different human needs such as: curiosity and surveillance, entertainment, and social and psychological adjustment.
In general people tend to prefer being exposed to arguments and ideas that do not conflict with their own and in fact will seek them out if they have the luxury of choice.
Selective retention suggests that people more easily retain messages that do not conflict with current beliefs when choosing memories to save.
Selective perception is the idea that viewers pay more attention to information that agrees with their existing opinions. This is because of influence by cognitive dissonance.
Ex. Feminist ignoring Clinton's women abuse, or change her views entirely
The pluralist perspective argues that there are too many forces that influence humans and that this limits the role of the media.
1. Reduce access to oppositional discourses
2. Decline of other influences (church etc)
3. Reinforcement in effect: keeping power structure in balance
4. Intermediation: turning to others for news who aren’t main source; other consumers
5. Blurring boundaries with new types of programs (reality, docudrama)
6. Eroding critical abilities through media self-promotion
7. media consumption takes away from other activities
News releases can be broken down into the good news and bad news and different strategies are used for each situation.
News that is released on Friday evening is reported at a time when most people are not paying attention and less likely to watch or read the news on Saturday. Bad news is already old news by Monday.
The “press gaggle” is the nickname given to an informal briefing by the White House Press Secretary. These are on record but do not allow videography. (More informal and tend to occur before press briefings, so that the Press Secretary has an idea of what questions he will be asked)
“The body watch is the assignment of a small number of reporters to closely accompany the president each day so that if anything newsworthy happens, a pool report will be immediately available to all the media”
-the denial of electoral choice=consequence of some frenzies
Horse race coverage “gives the appearance of issue coverage without the reality.” During campaigns, the media is often so focused on who is winning and who is losing, that candidates’ positions on major issues are often ignored. In the 2000 campaign, “media scholar Robert Lichter found that 71% of network television stories on the campaign had a horse racing emphasis”
Astroturf activism means activism which appears to be grassroots or populist in nature, but is really a front for a powerful organization to advance its interests. Dow chemical has been accused of this tactic, as have Exxon, Phillip Morris, Pfizer and Chevron.
Cable- Satellite Public Affairs Network
CSPAN 1 broadcasts the House of Representatives (1979)
CSPAN 2 broadcasts the Senate (1986)
CSPAN 3 broadcast other live events/ archived programs (2001)
C-Span is specifically devoted to covering Congress and politics. Things like PBS try to cater to a large audience.
Video Rigidity is used by the congress to limit what goes out in the media as a form of censorship. They try to only release certain information to promote the image of the congress.
The subtle immunization of Journalists on the lecture circuit happens when journalists and the politician on the lecture circuit get to know each other so the journalists go easier on the politician in terms of questions and stories that are reported.
When American journalism began, the news was written by poor print makers. With the Dawn of Mass Media journalism became a legitimate career and meant that journalists were making more money. The Professional era(1920-1972) the move from a blue collar job to an elite profession took place. From then until today, journalism has stayed an elite profession. The pinnacle of a journalists success is to have their own tv show. Think Anderson cooper, who today is a celebrity from high class.
With the arrival of the television, journalists who once aspired to work for the New York Times or the Wall Street Journal now became enticed to be the host of a talk show to be their pinnacle career moment. This follows the same idea as to why media is incestuous as well. The professional efforts of journalists after television became the dominant news source in America started to slide because it became less about reporting the news, and more about showcasing yourself.
Organizational routines are are the basic rules and practices that journalism schools and news organizations train reporters and editors to follow in deciding what to cover, how to cover it, and how to present the results of their work.
They might influence the news product because when there are levels of conflict among public officials on certain topics, the ‘news gates’ to these conflicted stories are closed. Thus leading to important public interest stories not being reported.
Generalist reporters are trained to be able to write/report on any subject.
Downsides: reporters tend to be at the mercy of the news sources.
The basic belief in Americans regarding media ownership is that unregulated markets make for better outcomes in choice, product quality and value because the America people have a tendency to distrust the government more than privately owned businesses.
Voice of America (VOA) is the official external broadcast institution of the United States federal government. It is one of five civilian U.S. international broadcasters working under the umbrella of the Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG).
regarding the interpretation of the 1st amendment?
1. Cross-promotion: If Viacom's paramount pictures produces a movie, it can promote it on the channels or business it owns (though VH1, ET or blockbuster).
2. Cross-production: If you make a successful movie, you can turn it into a TV show, a soundtrack, a book, etc., and make all the related profits
3. Cross-advertising: Viacom can go to a major advertiser and make them a billion dollar deal across all their different media to get their business from them, meaning the smaller companies have no hope of competing
4. Blockbusters: media conglomerates are reliant on blockbusters since they yield such large profits. One blockbuster can cover the expenses of an entire film studio for one year.
Public Responsibility Thinking:
· Local ownership more responsive to community values
· Different ownership of different types of media good for diversity
· Limits on ownership in a specific sector prevents strangleholds on advertisement revenue
· Markets inherently create diversity through competition
· Competition within each company will be created by the drive for audiences & profits
· Therefore companies will be compelled to diversify and reflect community values
What Bennett means when he talks about a changed thinking about media ownership it is the idea that political reporting is a public good that serves the public interest (public responsibility)
1. Dominance by a few players in the local and regional markets distorts advertising rates, forcing small, independent outlets to quit, sell out, or change their formats-resulting in less diversity in music, news and minority affairs programming. News is centrally gathered and delivered throughout the company’s “media-mall”
2. The interests of corporate image and self-promotion means less critical coverage of the media industry in general and parent companies in particular.
3. News content shifts to infotainment formats due to the entertainment focus of owners and the economic efficiencies of soft news, “reality programming” and human-interest features.
4. News is regarded less as a public service commitment or a prestige builder for the parent company, and it becomes just another product line in the race for profits. Cost cutting of staff and international bureaus leads to greater dependence on pro's for news stories
During the era of professional journalism, large media corporations would often run news shows at a loss; they were able to offset these losses with alternative revenues, which meant that the news programs were under little to no pressure to make a profit off of the news
Rating Points reflects the percentage of television households watching a program relative to the total number of television household (Bennett, 7).
Shares reflect the actual viewers in a particular time slot who are tuned in to a particular program
The four months of sweeps are November, February, May and July.
“Sweeps” may refer to the period in which TV consumers participate in self-survey diaries of what they watch, which is then returned to the Nielson Media Research Center. “Sweeps” may also refer when a particular news story “sweeps” the news cycle. (Think of the death of Osama Bin Laden)
Henry Crabb Robinson: “The first true military correspondent”, according to Mayer (Mayer 196). He covered Napoleon’s campaign in 1807.
William Howard Russel: Russel covered the Crimean War of 1854-1856. He became known for writing about the “vivid horror” of the war to his English audience (Mayer 196). He was the first war journalist celebrity, according to Mayer. He was accused of both lying an aiding the enemy by the British government (Mayer 197).
Ernie Pyle: Pyle was a journalist who covered the military progress of World War II on the side of the troops. He was known for reporting honestly, though he wore a uniform and often remarked on the bravery and courage of U. S. soldiers (Mayer 200). Contrary to the rosy picture which many reporters painted about World War II, Pyle stands out for conveying a broader illustration of the war
The massacre never occurred and the girl was actually the daughter of a Kuwaiti emir,
-The American Civil War: Invention of the Byline; journalists were now being held more accountable. This was also the first war where news reports arrived before the military’s own reports to the political leaders did. WWII: reporters had access to frontlines but stories were being censored. This allowed for more confidential info to be passed on to journalists. Reporters and soldiers came from the same backgrounds and wore similar clothing.
-Operational Security: Risking the life of soldiers and civilians.
-Political: Whether or not there is support for the war and also facing the reality of war.
-Personal: To what extent is suffering private? Should sensitivity and privacy matter?
How far is going too far?
-Commercial: Appetite for vs. disgust with war images.
Pool reporting: preselected group of journalists traveling together under the guidance and protection of the military; their goal is to provide operational security and battle field access. But, there is still leakage and limited access to the battlefield. Pool reporting is preferred because individual reporters are considered more of a burden and more troublesome.
Local Journalists (foreign in regards to US)
Web-based non-professionals/ Bloggers
The “clear and present danger” test was created by justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. in Schenck v. U. S. (1919). The three standards of criteria established later in Brandenburg v. Ohio (1969) proceed as such: 1) Intent to incite lawless activity. 2) Activity must be imminent. 3) speech must be likely to incite lawless activity
The chilling effect, as describe by Mayer, is the effect of excessive government regulation of the press. If newspapers face greater liability from printing exposes on powerful figures or government actions, they may hesitate or refuse to publish other important information and exposes from fear of lawsuits
Equal time, or more accurately equal opportunity, rule specifies that radio and TV broadcast stations must treat legally qualified political candidates equally when it comes to selling or giving away airtime. Exceptions include; documentary, bona-fide news interview, scheduled newscast, or on the spot news event.
The advantages for the incumbent include 1) political debates not hosted by media station considered a news event allowing for the exclusion of minor party candidates (since 1983) 2) The law also prohibits a station from censoring what a candidate says when he/she appears on the air (unless it is one of the listed exemptions) e.g. campaign ads 3) Refusal to provide air time to all candidates possible.
1. Interactivity, example, ability to vote online, blogs and journals.
--> Potential in increase citizens participation and voting.
2. Independence, able to read stories that are only of interest to you, and also increase access to diverse points of views.
3. Greater access to foreign news, can obtain information by simply visiting countries news outlets.
4. Information Depth, access to additional background via the interent.
1. Digital Divide
- two types of divides, divide between the poor and the rich but most important the divid between the rich and the rich.
2. Information overload
4. Blurring, who is the journalist?
5. Filterlessness- not much fact checking
6. More rumours and innuendos and competitive pressure on traditional media to print them.
8. Impermanence- short life of web pages, loss of original documents because they are constantly being changed.
The two effects of cocooning are physical isolation and topical isolation. Physical isolation occurs because one no longer needs to leave one’s house for almost anything anymore whether it be consumer goods, services or information. Topical isolation is similar to fragmentation, in that one may choose to read only topics which one finds interesting, leading to difficulties discussing topics which other individuals find interesting
- Paying for what you produce, she gave the example of journalists offshore getting paid to report the news, 1,000 words for $7.50
- Very harmful to democratic process, outsourcing the news will lead to greater information bias, journalists aren’t witnessing the news, thus we are suspect to receiving gratified, ambiguous or false news
- Three Revenue sources: Newsstand sales, subscriptions and advertising
- Problematic due to the fact that the new business model relies on all of these to survive, if one of the three legs weakens, the stool cannot stand
- Solution: Charge money for the content you produce. This can be done through subscriptions for frequent users or through micro-payments
They argue that it is possible for a state run news agency to be a prominent player in the industry. Their basic reasoning is that since the news source, in this case Xinhua the official Chinese newspaper, does not have to worry about the bottom line since they are state funded. This allow them to charge a minimal price. They also point out that while their will be a clear bias it will only be regarding certain topics. Xinhua will clearly not provide info regarding china.