What is psychology?
science of behavior and mental processes-interested in observable behavior
Psychology began in 1879, Germany. Wilhem Wundt, first experiment testing time lag between hearing a ball drop and a person pressing a key. Focused on perception and how individuals function.
Founded by William Titchner
Aim: What are the structural elements of the mind?
Method: Introspection-asking individuals to look inward
Ex: What do you hear/smell/taste/see?
Using your sense to figure things out
with structuralism: It is unreliable because it is subjective. The results
varied person to person. No direct explanation for results/feelings/thoughts.
So many factors to consider. Ex: Was the subject having a bad day or a good
Concerns with structuralism: It is unreliable because it is subjective. The results varied person to person. No direct explanation for results/feelings/thoughts. So many factors to consider. Ex: Was the subject having a bad day or a good day?
Founded by William James (Harvard University)
Aim: Understand how both mental & behavioral processes function
Method: Explore emotions, memories, habits, stream of consciousness
Focuses on development of individuals from birth to adulthood. Focuses on psychogical changes that occur socially, emotionally, physically.
Ex: Infant vs. college student develop in their ages differently.
Focuses on how different facts can either help or hurt the work environment. Consultations for businesses on positive work environment
Ex: green spaces to have lunch make people happy, therefore more productive
Focuses on how the community deals or does not deal with social problems. Emphasis on social justice, ethical research, social change.
Ex: Urban gardens, children learn nutrition, economics, self worth?ect.
Focuses on different factors related to people such as aggression, stereotypes, cooperation, attraction, identity
Neuropsychology/Biopsychology: Focuses on the body and the neural processes. Examines lesions and atrophy that occur within the brain. Researchers example changes that occur in language, thinking, and emotion
Fairly new, what is different and the same across cultures. How do people interpret these differences? How do we navigate our daily lives thorugh these differences.
Ex: Interdependent cultures vs. independent cultures
Focuse on what would be known as abnormal behavior. Examines how different types of mental health issues can impact individuals. Also focuses on psychopharmacology, therapies and treatment.
focues on families, schools, racial and ethnic socialization. Messages and
practices parents provide their children.
Cultural pride: food, language, cultural events
Preparation for bias-messages related to coping with possible discrimination
Self Worth- being good enough, having to work ?twice as hard?
Behaviors- ?reading cultural story books?
Egalitarianism-treating all people equal
1. Issues in research
2. Components of research
3. Types of research
?I knew it all along? phenomenon. After learning the outcome of an event, many people believe they could have predicted that very outcome.
Ex: dot.com stocks plummet, after it happened people say that they knew they were faulty.
: Sometimes we think we know more than we do.
Ex: Goranson 1978, how long does it take to unscramble this diagram? Most people said 10 seconds when in reality it takes about 3 minutes.
curiosity (passion for exploration)
skepticism (doubting and questioning)
humility (ability to accept responsibility when wrong).
Critical thinking does not accept arguments and conclusions blindly. It examines assumptions, discerns, hidden values, evaluates evidence and asseses conclusions.
*The amazing Randi
Bystander effect, 38 saw her stabbed to death in New York, no one did anything
-diffusion of responsibility
ran a test with college students, had a ?teacher? and a ?learner? and had the teacher shock the learner. About 65% complied until the very end.
A testable prediction often prompted by a theory, to enable us to accept, reject, or revise the theory.
A statement of operations used to define research variable.
Theory (leads to)ŕ Hypothesis (leads to) ŕ Research & Observation (confirms or rejects) ŕ Theory
Types of scientific research
A person is studied in depth to reveal underlying behavioral principles