c) Victim must be motivated to avoid aggression
Aggression as a means to some goal other than causing pain.
1. Get victim to make a commitment.
2. Then increase the cost of the commitment.
3. This works because it’s difficult to change a decision after making a commitment.
1. Make an inflated request (but wait, there’s more).
2. Immediately increase the apparent size of original request (keep price, raise quantity).
3. “Bargain” or “discount” mentality.
1. Make a large request --> rejection.
2. Then make a smaller request as a compromise.
-Using Yale as a justification to administer shock.-Did same experiment with no association of institution or Milgram, and produced 48% to give max shock
a) Give teacher an assistant to shock learner.
b) 93% of the teachers gave maximum shock (via assistant).
a) Two confederate teachers + the actual subject (other teacher) à confederates defy experimenter.
b) 10% of actual subjects administered the full shock.
1. Make a small request followed by a large request (or a series of small requests, then the large request).
2. “Snowballing” effect of saying “yes;” pretty soon it’s impossible to resist.
Instinct Theory (Freud)
aggression against a substitute target will stop frustration; if you displace your anger on a substitute target it can serve to decrease aggression, (ex. Punching a wall, exercise).
1. Serotonin: Brain chemical that may inhibit aggressive impulses.
-Violent criminals have low serotonin levels.
-Tryptophan: amino acid that produces serotonin in brain.
Depletion of tryptophan produces increase in aggression in humans.
person is not legally responsible for the aggressive behavior; NGRI: not guilty by reason of insanity.
-men 10 times more likely to be arrested for violent crimes than women.
-Boys tend to exhibit overt/obvious aggression (hitting, pushing); Girls tend to covert aggression
-shown that women are just as likely to be aggressive as men are.
noxious stimuli (noise, heat) causes a negative emotional response that may increase aggression.
some behaviors are mutually exclusive (engaging in one behavior precludes engaging in an opposite behavior).
-Humor is incompatible with anger & should therefore decrease aggression.
2. If the person was between 6th and 12th floors of the building.
3. During the summer months.
2. murderer and victim are acquaintances in many homicides.
1. In-group Bias: tendency to only see the best of our own group.
2. Out-group Bias: tendency to focus on negative aspects of other people’s groups; tend to see only the worst in the other side.
-Despised out-group’s --> scapegoats- --> elevate self-esteem in the in-group; (the holocaust).
-tendency to believe that the world is just.
1. People therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get; if something good happens --> good person; something bad happens --> bad person.
1. Balance or Equity Theory
a) Desire to be seen as intelligent, conscientious, popular.b) Desire to be seen as consistent à avoid cognitive dissonance.
2. Avoid contact with injured/hurt person.
-asking more than once; Cialdini found that sequential request strategies can become really influential to getting people to comply.
1. Foot-In-the-Door Technique
2. Door-In-the-Face Technique