· The branch of psychology that studies the effect of social variables on individual behavior, attitudes, perceptions, and motives. It also studies group and inter group phenomena.
Actual self: what you actually are
Ideal self: who you want others to see you as
Feared self: who you don't want others to see you as
Serial position effect
i. Conducting culture centered research
ii. Apply culture appropriate skills in clinical practice.
iii. Conduct culturally appropriate research.
iv. Tailor interventions to different cultures. Maybe in own language.
v. Culture could stigmatize mental health.
vi. Do culturagram.
1) among African Americans to minimize the significance of stress and, relatedly, to try to prevail in the face of adversity through increased striving.
1) In many traditional societies, mentalhealth problems can be viewed as spiritual concerns and as occasions to renewone’s commitment to a religious or spiritual system of belief and to engage inprescribed religious or spiritual forms of practice. African Americans and anumber of ethnic groups, when faced with personal difficulties, have been shownto seek guidance from religious figures.
1) In the family/community-centered perception of mental illness held by Asians and Hispanics, religious organizations are viewed as an enhancement or substitute when the family is unable to cope or assist with the problem.
1) Legal status 2) Time in community 3) Language spoken at home and in the community 4) Health beliefs 5) Impact of trauma and crisis events
6) Contact with cultural and religious institutions,holidays, food and clothing
7) Oppression, discrimination, bias and racism
8) Values about education and work
9) Values about family structure, power,myths, and rules
10) Reasons for relocating
i) Appearance ii) Attitude
iv) Mood and affect
vi) Thought process
vii) Thought content
a) a dialectical way of thinking =moderation, balanced, integrating or reconciling apparent contradictions
b) core mindfulness: experience a moment through observation, focus on one thing at a time, focus on achieving goals
c) distress tolerance: learning how to accept distress
d) emotion regulation: learn to be less controlled by emotions
a) Four steps:
i) address the most immediate and troubling behavioral disturbances
ii) reduce emotional distress through exposure therapy
iii) moderating distress and unhappiness
iv) moving toward more fulfilling engagements in life; coping with (perceived) trauma/crises
i. the more clinical experience the treatment provider has had working with borderline patients, the better. Most often, a good "fit" with the primary therapist is the "key" to successful therapy intervention.
1) There are now preliminary research data that suggest that family involvement is also very important in the effective treatment of borderline disorder.
1) SSRI’s block reabsorptions of serotonin by certain nerve cells in the brain. Leaving more serotonin in the brain.
a) Data supported.
b) Side effects, headache, dizzy, sleep interruption, anxiety.
-means of carrying out the plan
-giving away possessions, hist of hospitalization, absense of support system, single or divorced, unemployed, his of drug/alcohol abuse, prematurely putting pets to sleep
The variable that is manipulated to test its effects on the other
Criteria for good psychological tests
-Reliability(test-retest): produce similar results with repeated administration to the sameperson
-Validity(content, predictive): how well a test measures what it is supposed to measure
a classification system that describes the features used to diagnose each recognized mental disorder and indicates how the disorder can be distinguished from other, similar problems.
4 or more symptoms that peak within 10 minutes
- palpitations, pounding heart, accelerated HR
- sensations of shortness of breath/smothering
- feeling of choking
- chest pain/discomfort
- nausea/abdom distress
→ The compulsions seem to be in response to prevent or reduce the original obsessive thought
o modeling behaviors
o relaxation techniques
o support groups
o pharmacological help: SSRIs
Teaches skills for coping with psychological stressors and for
enhancing performance by developing productive thoughts, mental
images, and self-statements
Meichenbaum (1977, 1985) trained people to restructure their thinking in stressful situations.
“Relax, the exam may be hard, but it will be hard for everyone else too. I studied harder than most people. Besides, I don’t need a perfect score to get a good grade.”