The U.S. Supreme Court upheld legislation authorizing preventive detention of
dangerous defendants in:
United States v. Salerno
In 2007, almost ________ percent of all licensed lawyers were white and only
________ percent were racial minorities
The strongest predictor of the outcome of a bail decision is
the seriousness of the offense
Racial minorities are at a disadvantage in court both because of their race and
because they are more likely than whites to be poor
The emphasis of bail reform efforts in the 1970s was
The second bail reform movement occurred during the:
The U.S. Supreme Court extended to the states the requirement to appoint for all
indigent defendants in
Gideon v. Wainwright
Among those enrolled in law schools in 2003, ________ percent were African
American, Hispanic, Asian, or Native American.
appeals to racial sentiment
if a jury votes unanimously to acquit, the double jeopardy clause of the ________
________ attorneys assume that racial minorities will be more inclined than
whites to convict white defendants.
Jury nullification, which has its roots in English common law, occurs when a juror
guilt but nonetheless votes to _____
In serious criminal cases, the jury serves as the ________ of the community
Jurors must be ________ years old
Jury pools tend to under represent racial and ethnic minorities and those who
The USSC first addressed racial discrimination in jury selection in:
States do not obtain names of potential jurors from which of the following:
Studies conducted from the 1930s through the 1960s generally concluded that
racial disparities in sentencing reflected ________ racial discrimination
The task of assessing the effect of race on sentencing is complicated by the
________, which critics contend has been fought primarily in minority
It has been argued that "the recent blackening of America's prison population: is
a result of America's war on drugs.
______ is a legally relevant factor that may very well be "rack-linked".
According to the research on disparity and sentencing, racial minorities are
sentenced more harshly when the victim is _______.
Roper v. Simmons (2005) banned execution of those who were under age
________ at the time of their crime
Cruel and unusual punishments are prohibited by the ________ Amendment to
the U.S. Constitution.
________ directly addressed the issue of victim-based racial discrimination in the
application of the death penalty.
In ________ the Supreme Court banned execution of those who were under age
18 at the time of their crime.
The ________ prohibits the destruction of DNA evidence in federal criminal
cases while a defendant remains incarcerated.
In recent years, ________ have represented the fastest-growing minority group
in the prison population.
About ________ percent of Hispanic males are under correctional supervision.
As late as the ________ some prisons segregated prisoners according to race as
a matter of official policy
Nearly ________ percent of African American males are under correctional
The decision to release a prison inmate on discretionary parole is made by:
The authors argue that one of the main reasons that youth of color have
disproportionate contact with the police is:
In the late 1980s, ________ became the first state to create a computerized
database of suspected gang members.
Because the juvenile justice system espouses the philosophy of parens patriae, it
allows for more ________ than the adult system.
Data on homicide offenders reveal that roughly ________ percent of all
homicides are committed by offenders known to the victim
The NCVS defines juvenile as youth aged: