The study of humanity, including prehistoric origins and contemporary human diversity.
4 Fields of Anthropology
1. Biologogical/Physical Anthropology
3. Linguistic Anthropology
4. Cultural Anthropology
**5. Applied Anthropology**
Viewing things from an internal perspective. Stepping outside ones culture to understand another.
Unconscious standards which members of a society operate
Features of Culture
Beliefs---> Tradition, Values, Behaviors
US Cultural ideals
Characteristics of Culture
Causes of Culture change
4. Social Relationships
An analytical framework used by outside analysts in studying culture
Persistent feeling of uneasiness, loneliness, and anxiety that often occur when a person has shifted from one culture to a different one.
Research In the field, which is any place where people and culture are found
Basic fieldwork method in Cultural Abthropology that involves living in a culture for a long period of time while gathering data.
Bronislaw Malinowski, during WWI
Deductive approach (to research)
A research method that involves posing a research question or hypothesis, gathering data related to the question, and then assessing the findings in relation to the original hypothesis.
Inductive approach (To research)
A research approach that avoids hypothesis formation in advance of the research and instead takes its lead from the culture being studied.
Applying Anthropology to solve contemporary problems
Detailed description of a living culture based on personal observation and study, is the main way that cultural anthropologists present their findings about culture.
Function of culture
Production and distribution of goods necessary for survival
Functiins of Culture
- Production of Goods
- Encultiring new members
- Maintain order
Theoritical Debates in Cultural Anthropology
(BD Vs. CC)
1. Biological Determinism: Human behavior/ideas are shaped by genes and hormones
2. Cultural Constructionism: Nehavior shaped by learning
Interporative Anthropology vs Culturalism/Materialisn
1. Interp.Anthro.: What people think about symbols and these explinations explain their lives
2. looks at Material condition, natural environment, economic intrastructure
Importance of Anthropology
- Problem solving
- Understanding and accepting of cultural differences
- Teaches Tolerance
- Helps us understand our origins and past
Evolutionism 19th century (1800's)
- Tyler, Morgan Frazier
- All socities pass through a series of distinct evolutionary phases
- Very ethnocentric
1. Savagery 2. Barbaris 3. Civilization
Theory before "Evolutionis"
People not civilized fell from the grace of God
Functionalism (Early 20th Century)
- Culture is a system in which parts work to support the operation and maintenance of the whole. All cultural items have a function for the well being of the individual or society.
*Emic * FieldWork * Trobian Islands
Form of complex symbolic communication
Use of speaking and hearing to communicate with language
Only spoken language
Transfer of information from a person to another
How many languages are there worldwide? What percentage of people speak at least one of the hundred most spoken languages?
6,000 and 95%
How many languages were there in America Pre Columbus?
- Only 45 of those 400 languages had child learners.
For a language to be considered an endangered language it has to have how many speakers?
70% of human communication is?
-The opinion that ones own way of life is the correct one and the only true way of being fully human
-Binds members of a society together
Pains and gains of Fieldwork
- Living Conditions
- Culture Shock
- Social violence and safety
Combination of quantitative and qualitative data
Steps in research process
1. Select research problem
2. Formulate research design
*Hypothesis * Research questions
3. Collect data
Ability to talk about something that isn't there
No relationship between meaning of words and sounds of words
Ability to lie
- Great ape that were taught sign language, exhibited ability to lie
Two varieties of the same language spoken by the same person at different times and in different social contexts.
Ex. People speak to royalty different than average people
- Not considered a language
- No natural speakers
- Grammar from one language, mixed with words from another language.
- Studied Silence among the Cibecue Apache indians
- They believe talking to strangers was suspicious.
- They don't talk to people that are sad
- They are silent when their children come home from boarding school, to see how "White" they became
Study of past human cultures through material remains
Study of humans as biological organisms, evolutionary framework of humans
Study of communication including its origins and use, related to a culture
Is the study of living people and their culture, usually in a cross cultural context.
Language determines culture.
Edward Sapir/Benjamin Whorf
- Edward- Yale Cultural Anthropologist/Linguist
- Benjamin- Insurance
- Hypothesis- *Language influences the way people see the world *Different cultures see the world different ways because of their different linguistic characteristics.
Language shapes what?
What ever happens in a culture, is the way things should happen.
What happens in a culture might not be right, but we should attempt to understand.
Steps of Ethnographic Fieldwork
1. Find funding
2. Health percautions
3. Permission from host government
4. Learn language
5. Handle personal items, bills, children etc.
Post modernism (Late 20th century)
Asks whether modernity is truly progress
Cultural Materialism (20th Century)
- Political, exonomic approach, mayerial aspects of life shape other aspects including social organizatiob, ideology, and social control
Who brought Anthropology to the forefront?
Culture and Personality (Early 20th Century)
- Margret Mead, 1st woman in field, studied Somoan culture,
Historical Particularism (Early 20th Century)
- Concept of cultural relativism and collection of data from specific cultures
- Franz Boas (Father of Anthropology)
*Inductive approach *Encouraged women to join the field *Emphasized field work