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around the 6th month
- What is stranger wariness?
- when does it appear?
- infant no longer smiles at unfamiliur faces.
- around 9 mths
- What is seperation anxiety?
- When does it appear?
- tears, dismay, or anger when a familure person leaves.
- around 9 mths, common at 1 yr
- What is the mirror recognition or rouge test?
- What does it test for?
- when the researcher places blush on the infants nose or forehead and places the infant in fron of a mirror to see if she notices the blush.
- self recognition
- Oral stage
- first year
- mouth is the primary source of gratification
- Anal stage
- 2nd yr
- controlling bowel movements gives main pleasure
What is fixation?
- What would Oral fixation look like?
- What would Anal fixation look like?
- Oral- someone who eats, chews, drinks, bites, smokes, or talks alot
- Expolsive- toilet training was lax. Messy personality
- Retention- toilet training too strict. Overlly neat and controlling
- What are Erikson's first 2 stages of development?
- What does each involve in terms of psychosocial crisis?
- trust verses mistrust- infants learn if world can be trusted if basic needs(food) met
- autonomy versus shame and doubt-toddlers want self rule over their own actions and bodies. failure to obtain it makes them feel ashamed
- cognitive schema- organizes perceptions of other people. (holds the w.m. assumptions)
- working models- set of assumptions that the individual uses to organize perceptions and experiences.
- What did the New York Longitudinal Study propose about temperment?
1. *Temperment often changes in early weeks but is increasingly stable by age 3
* Extreme temperments at age 3 tend to carry over to adolescence and yound adulthood
*Parenting practices are crucial, temperment can change or be changed.
1. According to the New York Longitudinal Study how many traits does temperment have?
2. How many categories?
- 9 temperment traits broken into 4 categories
- 4(when faced with scary object)
- Easy (40%)- laugh
- Difficult (10%)-cry
- Slow to warm up (15%)-quiet
- Hard to classify (35%)
- Openness- imaginative, curious, welcoming new experiences
- Conscientousness- organized, deliberate, conforming
- Extroversion- outgoing, assertive, active
- Agreeableness- kind, helpful, easygoing
- Neuroticism- anxious, moody, self-critical
- what is synchrony?
- How can parents of infants encourage it?
- a coordinated, rapid, and smooth exchange of responses between a cargiver and infant
- do it within the first few months.
- an adult keeps her face unmoving and expressionless in face to face ineraction with the infant.
- babies are distressed by it.
- depressed moms show this more.
- secure- infant obtains comfort and confidence from the precence of his cargiver.
- avoidant- avoids connection with caregiver. Doesn't care about presence, departure, or return of caregiver
- ambivalent- infant becomes very upset at seperation from caregiver and both resists and seeks comfort at return
- preference for caregiver, but not comforted
- cant tell if they like or dislike the caregiver
- hug mom and then slap her
- correlated w abouse
- mothers are more likely to be comforting and caregiving like reading books
- fathers are more likely to engage in rough and toumble play providing fun
- attention to each infant
- encouragement of language and sensory motor development (songs, talk)
- attention to health and safety
- well trained and professional caregivers
- warm and responsive caregivers.
- fine- harder to master, smaller tasks, involves the brain
- gross- larger tasks like walking
- What is the "Just Right" phase?
- How should parents respond to it?
- children insist on eating certain foods and doing things in a certain way. dont want foods to touch, etc
- parents should tolerate it up to a certain age
- What is myelination?
- How does it affect neural transmission?
- speeds up signals between neurons.
- Reason for faster thinking
- Focus on appearance
- Static reasoning
- What is centration?
- What are the different types?
- Centration- child focuses on 1 idea and excludes others ( daddy is only a father and not a brother. )
- egocentrism- child thinks about world from own perspective. (its her daddy, so its just a daddy. mountain ex)
- conservation- something remains the same (conserved) despite changes in appearance
- preoperational child would say milk in a tall narrow glass has more than milk in a fat short glass or that 5 pennies arranged in a long line are more than 5 pennies measured in two short lines.
- What did Vygotsky mean when he described the appreticeship in thinking?
- What is the zone of proximal development?
- private speech- talk to self to develope new ideas, remember stuff
- young children do it to explain events or work through issues
- the idea that children attempt to explain everything they see and hear. Not allways correct explinations.
- ex: Why is the sky blue? Bc tink painted it blue
- What is theory of mind?
- When is the earliest a child can develop it?
- a person's theory of what other people might be thinking. In order to have a theory of mind, children must realize that people aren't thinking same thoughts as they are.
- age 4
- w/o t.o.m. a child who sees her mother sad is likely to give her mother her fav teddy to cheer her up
- the speedy and sometimes imprecise way in which children learn new words by tenatively placing them in mental categories according to their percieved meaning.
- save a word for later, even if dont know what it means
- ex: hawwaiin- a lion
- What is overregularization?
- application of gramar rules even when exceptions occur
- ex: says "mouses" instead of mice
- Ex: "dears" instead of dear
- repeated bruises
- play with violence
- slow physical growth
- no appitite
- physical complants
- reluctant to talk
- no close friendships
- What is emotional regulation?
- How does it affect behavior?
- ability to control when and how emotions are expressed.
- due to connections between limbic systema (emotional) and preofrontal cotex (impulse control)
- self concept- persons understanding of who he or she is , incorporating self esteam, physcial appearance, personality, and various personal traits
- ex: im a girl and i am good at art but bad at basketball
- things they draw they best. and bad traits will fade
- lack of emotional regulation
- involves expressing feelings through physical outbursts and breaking things
- turning ones emotions inward- feel excessive guilt or worthlessness
- solitary- plays alone. unaware of others
- onlooker- watches other children play
- parallel- children play with similar toys by eathother but not together
- associative- interact and share things, but dont play together yet
- cooperative- play together
- Authoritarian Parenting-
- Permissive Parenting
- Authoritative parenting
- Neglect/uninvolved parenting
- high behavioral standards, strict punishment of misconduct, little communication.
- red forman from that 70's show. "Why?" "Bc my house"
- RR- ridged ruller
- conscientous, obedient and quiet but not happy
- feel guilty or depressed and blame themsleves when things done go well
- rebel as adolesents and leave home before 20 yrs old
- be unhappy and lack self- control, esp. in peer relationships
- suffer from inadequate emotional regulation
- be immature and lack friendships
- continue to live at home, still dependent in early adulthood
- parents set limits and enfource rules but are flexible and listen to their children
- TT-tender teacher
- children will be:
- successful, articulate, happy with themsleves and generous to others
- be well liked
- what are empathy ?
- empathy-the ability to understand the emotions and conerns of another person, especially when they differ from ones own... seen in early childhood and increases with age
- antipathy- feelings of dislike or even hatred to another person
- What are the different kinds of aggression?
- Which is a characteristic of toddlers and preschoolers?
- Which is considered the most destructive and threatening?
- hurtful behavior intended to get something that the other person has and to keep it.
- ex: get toy
- an impulsive retaliation for another person's intentional or accidental action, verbal or physical.
- reaction if someone steps on ur foot or something
- Nonphyscial acts such as insults of social rejection aimed at harming the social connection between victim and other people
- He described it with the phallic stage of the psychoanalytic theory. During this stage boys are fasinated with the penis and want to kill their fathers and get with their mothers.
- Oedipus and Electra complex
About this deck
Size: 73 flashcards