the marketing of complementary products to customers. For example, in financial services, a customer with a checking account might be sold a money market account or a home improvement loan
is based on the relationship between the revenue produced by a specific customer, the expenses incurred in acquiring and servicing that customer, and the expected life of the relationship between the customer and the company
determines how much product a business needs to make to satisfy all of its customers’ demands
With new flows of information made possible by web-based tools, supply chain management more easily follows a pull-based model. In a pull-based model, AKA a demand-driven model or build-to-order, actual customer orders or purchases trigger events in the supply chain
production master schedules are based on forecasts or best guesses of demand for products, and products are “pushed” to customers
AKA a contact point, is a method of interaction with the customer, such as telephone, e-mail, customer service desk, conventional mail, website, wireless device, or retail store
Electronic retailing of products and services directly to individual consumers.
Goods that can be delivered over a digital network.
The removal of organizations or business process layers responsible for certain intermediary steps in a value chain.
Pricing of items based on real-time interactions between buyers and sellers that determine what a item is worth at any particular moment.
The use of wireless devices, such as cell phones or handheld digital information appliances, to conduct both business-to-consumer and business-to-business e-commerce transactions over the Internet
the ease with which consumers can find out the variety of prices in a market.
Artificial intelligence technology that represents knowledge as a database of cases and solutions.
Systems to support the decision-making process of an existing or potential customer.
Rule-based AI that tolerates imprecision by using nonspecific terms called membership functions to solve problems.
The strategy used to search through the rule base in an expert system; can be forward or backward chaining.
Software programs that use a built-in or learned knowledge base to carry out specific, repetitive, and predictable tasks for an individual user, business process, or software application.
Information systems that aid knowledge workers in the creation and integration of new knowledge in the organization.
Hardware or software that attempts to emulate the processing patterns of the biological brain.
Decisions that are repetitive, routine, and have a definite procedure for handling them.
Nonroutine decisions in which the decision maker must provide judgment, evaluation, and insights into the problem definition; there is no agreed-upon procedure for making such decisions.
Automation of step-by-step methodologies for software and systems development to reduce the amounts of repetitive work the developer needs to do.
The modification of a software package to meet an organization's unique requirements without destroying the package software's integrity.
Primary tool for structured analysis that graphically illustrates a system's component process and the flow of data between them.
A risky conversion approach where the new system completely replaces the old one on an appointed day.
The development of information systems by end users with little or no formal assistance from technical specialists.
The interaction of people and machines in the work environment, including the design of jobs, health issues, and the end-user interface of information systems.
Process to accelerate the generation of information requirements by having end users and information systems specialists work together in intensive interactive design sessions.
Changes in hardware, software, documentation, or procedures to a production system to correct errors, meet new requirements, or improve processing efficiency.
Defines what work is or is not included in a project.
Specialists who translate business problems and requirements into information requirements and systems, acting as liaison between the information systems department and the rest of the organization.
Details how a system will meet the information requirements as determined by the systems analysis.
The activities that go into producing an information systems solution to an organizational problem or opportunity
A traditional methodology for developing an information system that partitions the systems development process into formal stages that must be completed sequentially with a very formal division of labor between end users and information systems specialists.
Benefits that can be quantified and assigned a monetary value; they include lower operational costs and increased cash flows.
The mechanisms for assessing responsibility for decisions made and actions taken.
The commission of acts involving a computer that may not be illegal but are considered unethical.
A principle that states that if an action cannot be taken repeatedly, then it is not right to be taken at any time.
Adjusts copyright laws to the Internet Age by making it illegal to make, distribute, or use devices that circumvent technology-based protections of copy-righted materials.
Stress induced by computer use; symptoms include aggravation, hostility toward humans, impatience, and enervation.
A principle that states that if an action is not right for everyone to take it is not right for anyone.
The rights that individuals and organizations have with respect to information that pertains to themselves.
Intangible property created by individuals or corporations that is subject to protections under trade secret, copyright, and patent law.
The existence of laws that permit individuals to recover the damages done to them by other actors, systems, or organizations.
Model of informed consent permitting prohibiting an organization from collecting any personal information unless the individual specifically takes action to approve information collection and use.
Model of informed consent permitting the collection of personal information until the consumer specifically requests that the data not be collected.
Industry standard designed to give users more control over personal information gathered on Web sites they visit.
A legal document that grants the owner an exclusive monopoly on the ideas behind an invention for 17 years; designed to ensure that inventors of new machines or methods are rewarded for their labor while making widespread use of their inventions.
The use of computers to combine data from multiple sources and create electronic dossiers of detailed information on individuals.
Principle that one should take the action that produces the least harm or incurs the least cost.
Private self-regulating policy and enforcement mechanism that meets the objectives of government regulations but does not involve government regulation or enforcement.
Principle that assumes one can put values in rank order and understand the consequences of various courses of action.
requiring Web sites to obtain parental permission before collecting information
on children under the age of 13.
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA)
privacy protection for medical records.
Uses networks to link people, assets, and ideas, enabling it to ally with other companies to create and distribute products and services without being limited by traditional organizational boundaries or physical locations.
Displays all of a firm's key performance indicators as graphs and charts on a single screen to provide one-page overview of all the critical measurements necessary to make key executive decisions.
The set of processes developed in an organization to create, gather, store, maintain, and disseminate the firm's knowledge.
Simon's final stage of decision-making, when the individual puts the decision into effect and reports on the progress of the solution.
A term that includes any group, business, organization, or individual that provides Web pages, entertainment, or documents to the World Wide Web or Internet.
a person or company providing
information to clients for a fee
Companies should examine their portfolio of projects in terms of potential benefits and likely risks. Certain kinds of projects should be avoided altogether and others developed rapidly. There is no ideal mix. Companies in different industries have different information systems needs.