The water that fills the Earth's oceans came from:
The oceans are about ________ deep in the central parts of ocean basins.
Samples can be taken from the deep sea floor by:
A magnetometer could be used to:
The Mid-Oceanic Ridge is composed mainly of:
The Mid-Oceanic Ridge rises high above the surrounding sea floor because:
Sand, silt, and clay that erodes from the continents and is carried to the deep sea floor is called:
At sea floor vents, bacteria produce energy from hydrogen sulfide in a process called:
If a series of island arcs collide with a continent over a long period of time they add to a continent as:
The flattest surfaces on Earth are:
When two oceanic plates converge, the sinking plate drags the sea floor down to create:
Continental crust and oceanic crust firmly join together at a/an:
An active continental margin forms:
Island arcs grow from:
Seawater heated near ________ and ________ can dissolve metals from oceanic crust, and deposit them as ore.
At present, the Atlantic Ocean is growing while the Pacific is shrinking.
The Mid-Oceanic Ridge system is the Earth's largest mountain chain.
Pillow basalts comprise most of layer 2 of oceanic crust.
Some of the world's richest offshore petroleum reserves are found on continental shelves.
If the Pacific Ocean plate continues to move at its present rate, the island of Hawaii may sink beneath the sea within 10 to 15 million years.
The world's largest and deepest ocean is:
A spring tide is a:
The wave height is:
Deep water ocean currents are driven by:
An upwelling carries:
If waves strike shore at an angle, they ________ and create a ________ current that flows parallel to the beach.
The backshore is the:
Eustatic sea level change occurs:
Coral reefs develop in:
Most emergent coastlines are:
The two essential ingredients for barrier island formation are:
During the past 40,000 years, sea level has fluctuated by:
The highest part of a wave is called the trough.
In the polar regions, near-surface ocean water becomes saltier when the surface water freezes.
A wave breaks when the wave steepens until it collapses forward.
A wave-cut platform is a common feature of sediment-poor coastlines.
The world fish harvest is predicted to decline sharply after 2010.
The Earth's primordial atmosphere:
The Earth's modern atmosphere:
As early organisms evolved and multiplied, they released more ________ into the atmosphere.
In a barometer, the weight of the atmosphere is compared with that of:
The layer of air closest to the Earth is the:
The portion of the atmosphere that absorbs high-energy radiation is the:
Which of the following orders of the layers of the atmosphere is correct? (Start with the lowest layer)
The largest source of air pollutants in the United States is:
If pure coal burned completely, it would produce:
The primary source of sulfur oxide pollution is:
Acidic precipitation is produced:
Smog is produced:
Solar energy breaks oxygen molecules apart in the stratosphere, releasing ________ which combine with additional oxygen molecules to form ________.
If the oxygen level in the atmosphere were to rise significantly, fires would burn uncontrollably across the planet.
Incomplete combustion of fossil fuels releases carbon monoxide (CO), which is colorless, odorless, and toxic.
An aerosol is any small piece of solid material that pollutes air.
Ozone is both a pollutant and a beneficial component of the atmosphere, depending on elevation.
Incompletely burned gasoline in automobile exhaust reacts to deplete ozone in the troposphere.
Which is not an electromagnetic wave?
When an object absorbs radiation:
A mirror has an albedo:
The sky appears blue because:
________ percent of the incoming solar radiation reaches Earth's surface.
Why doesn't Earth get hot enough to boil oceans and melt rocks from the radiant energy it absorbs from the Sun?
The Earth remains warm at night because:
The region of the globe directly beneath the Sun is warmer because:
________ plays an important role in heat transfer and storage because it commonly occurs naturally on Earth in all three states, solid, liquid, and gas.
If you place a pan of water and a rock outside on a hot summer day:
Evaporation from a body of water:
Locations at the same latitude, which receive the same amount of solar radiation:
If the air is filled with dust or water droplets, all the wavelengths scatter and the sky becomes red.
If the Earth's albedo were to rise by growth of glaciers or increase in cloud cover, the surface of our planet would cool.
Air is a good conductor of heat.
Continental interiors are commonly cooler in summer and warmer in winter than coastal areas.
________ is the mass of water vapor in a given amount of air expressed in grams per cubic meter (g/m3).
When relative humidity reaches 100%, the air is:
Moisture condenses from air when the air:
a. gains heat by radiation and warms.
b. loses heat by radiation and cools.
c. warms adiabatically as it sinks to a lower elevation.
d. cools adiabatically as it sinks to a lower elevation.
Which of the following processes would lower the relative humidity of a parcel of air?
Which of the following conditions is likely to lead to rain?
Supersaturated droplets do not freeze because:
During an adiabatic temperature change:
Once clouds start to form, rising air:
If air stops rising before it cools to its dew point:
When condensation occurs at the same elevation at which air stops rising:
Rain doesn't fall from all clouds because:
If one portion of the atmosphere becomes warmer than surrounding air:
Since warm air can hold more moisture than cold air, clouds generally do not form over:
El Niño is a weather pattern caused by:
Hail falls only from cirrus clouds.
Pressure gradients can change hourly.
When a warm front overtakes a cold front, precipitation is widespread.
Sea and land breezes are caused by uneven heating and cooling of land and water.
A single bolt of lightning produces as much power as a nuclear power plant for a few seconds.
Which of the following statements about climate is correct?
The 3-cell model of global wind circulation shows:
Surface winds moving toward the equator are deflected by the Coriolis effect, so they blow from the ________ in the Northern Hemisphere and from the ________ in the Southern Hemisphere.
In the Northern Hemisphere, surface winds deflected by the Coriolis effect are known as the:
When warm air is heated by the Sun and rises at the equator:
The polar easterlies and prevailing westerlies converge at approximately:
In the three-cell model, global wind patterns are generated by heat-driven convection currents that are directed by the Earth's rotation. Their direction is then altered by:
The Koeppen Climate Classification classifies climate zones primarily by:
The climate zone (or biome) associated with rainfall of 25 to 35 centimeters per year is:
The climate zone (or biome) associated with cool summers, warm winters, and little temperature difference year-round is:
The climate zone (or biome) associated with more than 400 centimeters of rain is:
Continental interiors that have hot summers, cold winters where the temperature can fluctuate greatly are in the ________ climate zone.
Many of the world's great deserts are located in the doldrums.
The sub-tropical jet stream flows along the polar front.
In a Mediterranean climate more than 75 percent of the annual rainfall occurs in winter.
Temperate rainforests are common along the northwest coast of America, from Oregon to Alaska.
The climate of cities is measurably different from that of the surrounding rural regions.
Storm fronts pass over cities more quickly than they do over the surrounding countryside.