A force with its resultant passing through the centroid of a particular section and being perpendicular to the plane of the section. A force in a direction parallel to the long axis of the structure.
The stress required to fracture a material whether by compression, tension, or shear.
When a material is reduced in volume by the application of pressure; the reciprocal of the bulk modulus.
Any alteration of shape or dimensions of a body caused by stresses, thermal expansion or contraction, chemical or metallurgical transformations, or shrinkage and expansions due to moisture change.
Test methods used to examine an object, material, or system causing permanent damage to its usefulness.
Maximum stress that a material will withstand without permanent deformation.
The fractional increase in a material’s length due to stress in tension or thermal expansion.
The ratio of actual strength to required strength.
Condition caused by collapse, break, or bending, so that a structure or structural element can no longer fulfill its purpose.
The loss of the load-bearing ability of a material under repeated load application, as opposed to a single load.
The ratio of the increment of some specified form of stress to the increment of some specified form of strain, such as Young's modulus, the bulk modulus, or the shear modulus. Also known as coefficient of elasticity, elasticity modulus, elastic modulus.
Test methods used to examine an object, material, or system without impairing its future usefulness.
Point at which the deformation is no longer directly proportional to the applied force. Hooke’s Law no longer applies.
Nominal stress developed in a material at rupture. Not necessarily equal to ultimate strength. Since necking is not taken into account in determining rupture strength, seldom indicates true stress at rupture.
A statistical measurement of variability.
A measure of how easily a material can be twisted.
Sometimes referred to as tensile strength; determined by measuring the maximum load a material specimen can carry when in the shape of a rectangular bar or cylindrical can.