Neurologically-based Disorders, Keratosis, Granuloma, Papilloma, Ankylosis, Contact Ulcer, Carcinomas
Both trained and untrained listeners would consider the voice extremely abnormal. The voice characteristic is highly distracting. The ability to effectively communicate is consistently affected. The dysphonia causes phonation to be mainly absent or extremely effortful.
1. Evolution of the SLP’s environment(s).
2. Reimbursement issues.
3. Information re: the coordination of speech subsystems.
4. Instrumental measures may help form a more solid foundation for clinical judgments.
5. Instrumental measures allow for the comparison of vocal performance to appropriate normative data.
ALSO, objective measures often aid the clinician in identifying mild disorders and may direct the clinician towards a reexamination of perceptual judgments
May be associated with voice disorders as:
Often made on a subjective basis. Client may report the sensation of tension, even pain, during speaking. It also may be the judgement of a clinician based upon auditory and visual observations.
standard deviation & pitch sigma
Elicited via open-ended questioning techniques or picture description tasks
While voice change often occurs during puberty without any residual voice problem, disturbed mutation can occur. Thee male subject retains a child-like, higher pitched voice post-puberty, resulting in a voice vs. age mismatch and pitch abnormality
This condition may also affect females. The female may also maintain a child-like voice post-puberty.
Excessive muscular activity in those muscles which increase the lengthening and tensing aspects of vocal folds function, the result may be an increase in pitch level.
Cases of psychosis, schizophrenia, and clinical depression may be characterized in part by changes to the pitch of the voice.
This is significantly lower in smokers vs. nonsmokers