A.created a too-powerful chief executive
B.did not include a mechanism for their own amendment
C.made it too difficult for the government to raise money through taxes and duties
D.denied the federal government the power to mediate disputes between states
E.required the ratification of only a simple majority of states
2.) The shaded region of the map (above) shows the land held by the United States immediately following the
B.passage of Northwest Ordinance
C.negotiation of Treaty of Greenville
E.War of 1812
3.)Manifest Destiny is the wiled that
A. The colonists were destined to leave the British Empire because of the distance between the New World and England
B.Women are biologically predestined to lives of child bearing and domestic labor
C.America's expansion to the west coast was inevitable and divinely sanctioned
D.The abolition of slavery in the United States was certain to come about, because slavery was immoral.
E.American entry into World War I was unavoidable and was in America's long-term interests.
4.)in his opinion on the case of Dredd Scott v. Stanford, Chief Justice Roger Taney ruled that
A.The Supreme Court has the right to rule on the Constitutionality of any federal law.
B."Seperate but equal" facilities for people of different races were constitutional
C.Corporations were entitled to the same protections guaranteed individuals under the Fourteenth Amendment
D.School prayer violated the principle of "separation of church and state"
E.Congress had no right to regulate slavery in United States territories
5.)Following the Civil War, most freed slaves
A.Stayed in the South and worked as sharecroppers
B.Joined the pioneering movement as it headed West
C.Moved to the North to work in factories
D.Took work building the nation's growing railroad system.
E.Moved to Liberia with the aid of the American Colonization Society.
6.)All of the following policies pursued by President Theodore Roosevelt were main objectives of the American Progressives EXCEPT
A.passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act
B.creation of the national forests and protected wildlife preserves
C.initiation of antitrust lawsuits against various corporate monopolies
D.intervention in the affairs of Central American governments
E.expansion of the power of the Interstate Commerce Division
7.)which of the following statements about the Treaty of Versailles is true?
A.The US Senate rejected it because it treated Germany too leniently
B.the US Senate rejected it because it required increased American involvement in European affairs
C.the US Senate approved it, with reservations concerning the division of Eastern Europe
D.the US Senate approved it without reservations
E.the US Senate never voted on the treaty
8.)The 1956 boycott of the Montgomery bus system
A.was led by Malcom X
B.started because the city doubled bus fares
C.was instigated by the arrest of Rosa Parks
D.lasted for three weeks and failed to achieve its goal
E.Resulted from the assassination of MLK Jr.
9.)Senator Joseph McCarthy gained national prominence with his accusation that
A.American meat packers disregarded fundamental rules of sanitation
B.the FBI was violating many innocent citizens' rights to privacy
C.some congressmen were taking bribes in return for pro-business votes
D.massive voter fraud was common throughout the Southwest
E.the State Department was infiltrated by communist spies
10.) The Puritans believe that the freedom to practice religion should be extended to
A. Puritans only
B. All Protestants only
C. All Christians only
D. Jews an Christians only
E. All inhabitants of the New World, including Africans and Native Americans
11.) The sugar act of 1764 represented a major shift in British policy towards the colonies in that, for the first time, the British
A.allowed all proceeds from a tax to stay in the colonial company
B. Attempted to control colonial exports
C. Offered the colonists opportunity to address the Parliament with grievances
D. Require the colonies to import English goods exclusively
E. Levied Texas aimed at revenue rather than regulating trade
12. In response to several unfavorable Supreme Court rulings concerning new deal programs, Franklin Roosevelt
A. Urge to voting public to write letters of protest to Supreme Court justices
B. Submitted four separate constitutional amendments broadening the powers of the presidency
C. Abandoned the New Deal and replaced it with a laissez-faire policy
D. Instructed both the legislative and executive branches to ignore the rulings
E. Proposed legislation that would allow him to appoint new federal Supreme Court judges
13. The Know-Nothing party focused its efforts almost exclusively on the issue of
A. Religious freedom
B. The right to bear arms
C. The prohibition of alcohol
D. Women's rights
14.) The " new immigrants " who arrived in the United States after the Civil War were different from the " old immigrants " in that they
A. Came mostly from Latin American countries
B. Settled in rural areas in the Midwest where land was plentiful
C. Were better prepared than previous immigrants had been to face the challenges in urban life
D. Spoke different languages and had different customs and most Americans and thus were not as easily assimilated
E. Came from Asia rather than Europe
15.) The "ghost dance"movement along the western Native Americans stressed all of the following EXCEPT
A. Belief that the world would soon come to an end
B. rejection of alcohol and other trappings of white society
C. Unity among Native Americans of different tribes
E. The use of magic to neutralize the effectiveness of whites' weaponry
16.) The Industrial Revolution had which of the following effects of slavery in the south?
A. The creation of numerous labor-saving machines vastly reduced the need for slave labor
B. Rapid growth in the textile industry encourage Southern planters to grow cotton, thereby making slavery more important to the economy
C. The government brought in FreeSong enslaves and transported them to the north, or factories were experiencing a major labor shortage
D. The Industrial Revolution began as a Civil War was ending and I provided work for many former slaves
E. New farm machinery required slaves and masters to work more closely together, with the resulting reduction of mutual hostility
17. Another picture question, I cannot post as I do not have PRO VERSION
- in which decision did the Supreme Court invalidate the practice of "Separate but equal" facilities?
A. Marbury v. Madison
B. Bradwell v. Illinois
C. Plessy v. Ferguson
D. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
E. Holden v. Hardy
19.) The Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba, in 1961, was carried out by
A. Caribbean mercenaries hired by the United States
B. American soldiers
C. The Soviet Navy
D. Cuban exiles trained by the Central intelligence agency
E. Cuban communist rebels led by Fidel Castro
20.) Roger Williams was banished from Massachusetts Bay in 1636 for advocating
A. Separation of church and state
B. Women's suffrage
D. The export of tobacco
E. Independence from England
21.) all of the following influence the United States decision to declare war against Great Britain in 1812 EXCEPT
A. Impressment of American sailors
B. British control of the Atlantic and resulting interference in United States trade with Europe
C. The American government certainty that it's navy was more powerful than Great Britain's
D. Great Britain's alliances with American Indian tribes, which curtailed United States westward expansion
E. The failure of the embargo act
22. The Missouri compromise can be described by all of the following EXCEPT
A. Provided a method for counting slaves on Wednesday populations when determining the size of the states congressional delegations.
B. It allowed Missouri to be admitted to the union as a slave state
C. It created the free state of Maine from territory that belong to Massachusetts
D. One of its purposes was to maintain the equal representation of free states and slave states in the Senate
E. Included a northern border in the Louisiana territory above which slavery was thereafter prohibited
23.) between 1820 and 1854, the greatest number of immigrants United States came from
24. Congress brought impeachment proceedings against Andrew Johnson primarily because
A. Johnson sought to block the punitive aspect of congressional reconstruction
B. Johnson's r republican policies had fallen out of favor with the Democratic majority
C. The Johnson administration was riddled with corruption
D. Johnson's pro-north bias was delaying the readmission of southern states to the union
E. Many congressmen personally dislike Johnson, although they agreed with his policies
25.) The open door policy in 1899 primarily concerned
A. Independence movements in Africa
B. Mexican immigration to the United States
C. The removal of trade tariffs from the United States-European trade
D. Trade with China
E. United States colonies in Central
26. Which of the following was not a major contributing factor to the onset of the Great Depression
A. Technological advances had allowed farmers and manufactures overproduce, creating large inventories
B. The federal government interfered too frequently with the economy, causing investors to lose confidence
C. The average wage earner was not earning enough money to afford the many consumer goods new technology had made available
D. Stock investors have been allowed to speculate wildly, creating an unstable and volatile stock market
E. Major businesses were controlled by so few producers at the failure of anyone had a considerable effect on the national economy
27.) The Truman doctrine declared the government's commitment to assist
A. Japanese families affected by the atomic bomb blasts in Hiroshima and Nagasaki
B. Any nation facing widespread poverty as a result of World War II
C. Free nations in danger of takeover by repressive governments, especially Soviet-style communism
D. American farmers, who suffered through major price drops after World War II ended
E. American families who could not afford to build homes without government aid
28.) United States primary reason for participating in the war in Vietnam was
A. To fight under the terms of its military alliance with Japan
B. To provide military aid and assistance to Vietnamese leader Ho Chi Minh
C. To promote Asian autonomy and anticolonialism
D. Because American foreign-policy experts believe that, without intervention, communism would spread from Vietnam throughout southeast Asia
E. Because the government feel obliged to protect United States considerable business interests in Vietnam
29.) The first great awakening was a direct response to
B. The enlightenment
30.) " society everywhere is in conspiracy against the manhood of everyone of its members… The virtue and most requested conformity. Self-reliance is it's aversion."
The passage above was written by
A. Ralph Waldo Emerson
B. Jonathan Edwards
C. Harriet Beecher Stowe
D. Charles G Finney
E. Andrew Carnegie
31.) The free-soil party advocated which of the following?
A. The freedom of settlers within the territory to determine the slave status of their New state
B. Passage of the Homestead act to give free land all Western settlers
C. The exclusion of slavery from any of the new territories
D. The policy of giving newly-Fried slaves "40 acres and a mule" following the Civil War
E. The destruction of the sharecropping system
32.) which of the following states the principle of "virtual representation" as it was argued during the 18th century?
A. Paper money has value even though it's inherently worth very little
B. Sleep populations must be counted when figuring Congressional apportionment, even though slaves may not vote.
C. American poverty-holding colonists may, if they so desire, join their state legislators
D. All English subjects, including those who are not allowed to vote, I represented in parliament
E. All English subjects are entitled to a trial before a jury of their peers
33.) By the first decade of the 19 century, American manufacturing have been revolutionized by the advent of
A. Interchangeable machine parts
B. The electric engine
C. Transcontinental railroads
D. Labor unions
E. Mail-order catalogs
34.). The principle of popular sovereignty stated that
A. Whenever a new area was settled, all United States citizens required to vote on the slave status of the area
B. Slavery would not be permitted in any area after 1848
C. The president, after meeting with public interest groups, was to decide on whether sleeves would be allowed in a given territory
D. Settlers in the western territories, not Congress, would decide whether to allow slavery in their territory
E. Any of the settlers disagreeing with federal laws governing slavery were free to ignore those laws
35.) which of the following is not a requirement set by the reconstruction act of 1867 for southern states the admission to the union?
A. Blacks have to be allowed to participate in state conventions and state elections
B. The state had to ratify the 14th amendment to the constitution
C. State had to pay reparations and provide land grants to all former slaves
D. The state had to rewrite its constitution and ratify it
E. Congress had to approve the new state constitution
36.) which of the following is true of the American rail system in the 19th century
A. Government subsidies and land grants played a major role in its expansion
B. The entire national system was planned before the first railway was constructed
C. Transcontinental Rail travel was not possible at any time during this century
D. The development of the rails had little effect on the development of American industry
E. A more highly developed rail system gave the Confederacy a decided advantage in the Civil War
37. Another picture question, I cannot post as I do not have PRO VERSION
- all the following contributed to the spirit of isolationism in the United States during the 1930sEXCEPT
A. Disclosures that munitions manufacturers had lobbied for American involvement in World War I, then profited heavily from the wall
B. A foreign-policy tradition that could be traced to Washington's farewell address
C. A universal lack of awareness of the goals of the third reich
D. Memories of the cost, both in financial terms and in human life, of participation in World War I
E. The desire to focus resources on recovery from the depression rather than strengthening the military
39.) Jack Kerouac's on the road and the Dharma Bums articulated the ideals of
A. The silent majority
B. The "lost generation"
C. Middle America
D. The beat generation
E. Conservative academics
40. Legislation executive orders associated with the great Society created all the following EXCEPT
A. The Works progress administration
B. The equal employment opportunity commission
D. The Department of Housing and Urban Development
E. Project Headstart
41.) which of the following most accurately describes a system of indentured service in the Chesapeake settlement during the 17th century?
A. Indentured servants or slaves for life; however, their children were born free and could own property
B. Most indentured servants were alerted by the promise of freedom and property upon completion of their service
C. Most indentured servants were convicted criminals sentenced to servitude in the New World.
D. The vast majority of indentured servants died within two years of arriving in the New World
E. Indentured servants were not protected under colonial law
42. The Northwest ordinance of 1787 was a significant achievement because it
A. Laid claim to all of North America east of the Mississippi River
B. Represented one of the rare successes of diplomacy between the United States government and American Indians
C. Defined the process by which territories could become states
D. Opened all territories west of the states to slavery
E. Was the only piece of legislation the pass through Congress under the articles of Confederation
43.) The rapid growth of American towns in the 1920s and 1930s was made possible primarily by the
A. Invention of the steam locomotive
B. Greater access to information provided by radio and television
C. Mass production of automobiles
D. End of an open-range cattle ranching
E. Bring about end to slavery
"The price of which society pays for the law of competition… Is great; but the advantages of this law also greater… Whether the law be benign or not, we must see you have it: it is here; we cannot abated;… It is best for the race, because it ensures the survival of the fittest in every department." The before passage is characteristic of
B. Social Darwinism
D. Cultural pluralism
46.) The United States Army supported panamas 1903 word independence against Columbia primarily because
A. United States was sympathetic to the rebels democratic ideals
B. The Monroe doctrine required the United States to support all wars of independence in the Western Hemisphere
C. Columbia was asking too high price for control of the projected Atlantic-Pacific canal
D. The success of panamas rebellion would have lowered sugar prices in United States considerably
E. The Colombian government was guilty of numerous human rights violations in Panama
47.) all of the following were elements Of Henry Clay's American system EXCEPT
A. Protective tariffs on imports
B. The establishment of the second bank of United States
C. The construction of the national Road and other roadways
D. Creation of large numbers of federal jobs in areas with unemployment problems
E. Incentives to develop manufacturing and interstate trade
48.) which of the following is true about the internment of those Japanese living in the United States during World War II?
A. Majority of those confined were nativeborn Americans
B. Many of those relocated were known as dissidence
C. Only 2000 Japanese-Americans were relocated
D. Congress passed a law requiring the relocation of all aliens during the war
E. Those were relocated eventually recover their homes and possessions
49.) angle-American woman in colonial times
A. Can own property or execute legal documents only if they were with older unmarried
B. Enjoyed more liberties and rights than did Native American woman
C. attended church less frequently than did angle-American men
D. Were more likely than men to do agricultural work
E. Where required by law to learn to read and write, in order to teach their children
50.) in the 17th century the Chesapeake Bay settlement expanded its territorial holdings more quickly than did the Massachusetts-based settlement primarily because
A. Massachusetts settlers were entirely uninterested in expansion
B. A high burthrate and healthy environment resulted in a population boom in the Chesapeake region
C. No Native Americans lived in the Chesapeake Bay area, and the colonists were free to expand their settlements at will
D. Farmland in the Chesapeake area was less fertile, and so more of it was needed to support sustenance farming
E. Farming of the chief Chesapeake export, tobacco, required a great deal of land
51.) The debate over the first bank of United States is significant because it raised the issue of
A. What is the new government should issue paper currency
B. have strictly the Constitution should be interpreted
C. One of the United States should pay back it's worth it to France
D. How to finance the construction of the railroads
E. Whether the president had the power to act unilaterally on important economic issues
52.) The Lowell system of early 19th century textile manufacturing was noteworthy for its
A. Practice of hiring only adult males at a time when textiles was considered "women's work"
B. Commitment, in the face of Industrial Revolution, to maintaining the old, "by hand" method of manufacture
C. Efforts to minimize the dehumanizing effects of industrial labor
D. Pioneering advocacy of such issues as parental leave, vacation time, and the health insurance for employees
E. Particularly harsh treatment of employees
53.) election of 1824 was a turning point in presidential politics because, for the first time,
A. Presidency was one by someone who was not a member of the Federalist party
B. The presidential and vice presidential candidate ran together on one ticket
C. All the candidates campaigned widely throughout the states
D. Political parties officially participated in the election
E. The system of choosing nominees by congressional caucus failed
54.) in the late 19th century, political machines such as Tamany Hall were successful primarily because
A. Federal legislation sanctioned their activities
B. They operated primarily in rule areas where the government cannot monitor the activities
C. They focused on accomplishing only a narrow set of human rights objectives
D. The champions the suffragettes and receive their support in return
E. Machine politicians provided needed jobs and services to naturalized citizen in return for their votes
55.) The disagreement between WDB Dubois and Booker T. Washington regarding the status of African-Americans the early 20th Century is best summed up as a debate over
A. What social injustices better legislation should correct first
B. Whether African-Americans should emigrate to Africa
C. Whether state governments or the federal government should be the primary vehicle of social change
D. How prominent a role of African-American churches should play in the struggle for civil rights
E. Whether African-Americans should first seek legal or economic quality with my Americans
56. One of the unintended effects of prohibition was that it
A. Caused a national epidemic of alcohol withdrawal
B. Brought about a decrease in alcoholism and an increase in worker productivity
C. Resulted in a substantials increase in the abusive hard drugs, particularly heroin
D. Lower the cost of law enforcement by decreasing the incidence of drunkenness
E. Provided organize crime syndicates with a means to gain both wealth and power
57.) The 1927 motion picture the Jazz Singer was the first major commercial filmed the future
A. Color images
B. Illusion of three dimensions
C. Synchronous sound
E. A dramatic plot
58.) which of the following was least likely a factor in the design to drop atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki?
A. Hope that a quick victory in the Pacific would Haisten an Allied victory in Europe
B. Via the Soviet Union would soon enter the war with Japan
C. Concern that Alanna one Japan would result in massive American casualties
D. Awareness that Japanese forces were numerous and spread throughout Asia
E. Desire to demonstrate to other world powers the potency of America's new weapon
59.) The failed equal rights amendment to the Constitution was intended to prevent discrimination against
B. Native Americans
C. Children and adolescents
D. Legal immigrants
60.) which of the following statements about the Stamp Act is not true
A. Because the most affected lawyers writers, the stamp act fostered a particularly eloquent opposition to the crown
B. Colonial legislators sent letters of protest parliament threatening secession from England the stamp act was not repealed
C. Oppositions the Stamp Act built upon colonial resentment of the sugar and currency affects
D. Among the colonists reactions to the Stamp Act was an effective boycott of British goods
E. According to the stamp act, those who violated the law were not entitled to a jury trial
61.) The doctrine of nullification stated that
A. Legal immigrants may be deported when they fall into a state of destitution
B. Congressman overriding Executive Order with a two thirds majority vote
C. The government may take control of the bank if it's cash reserves fall below a certain percentage of its total deposits
D. Municipal and county governments may rescind licenses granted by the state.
E. Estate may repeal any federal law that it deems unconstitutional
62.) Alexis de Tocqueville attributed American social mobility to
A. Continuation of European traditions in the New World
B. Americans rights to speak freely and to bear arms
C. The governments tolerance of labor unions and progressive organizations
D. Lack of an aristocracy and the availability of frontierland
E. Mandatory public education
63.) which of the following changes and westward migration occurred in 1848?
A. The Number of pioneers headed for the Oregon territory decreased while the number headed for California greatly increased
B. The first great with migration ended and the number of migrants remained extremely low until after the Civil War
C. For the first time, pioneers began to settle areas west of the Missisippi River
D. Large numbers of free blacks, unwelcome in the East, began to resettle in the west
E. The government began to enforce quotas limiting the number of people who could make her each year
64.) The free silver campaign of 1896 received its greatest popular support from
A. New England businessmen, who were discriminated against under the existing banking system
B. Southern women, who incorporated into a larger campaign for economic equality
C. Bankers, would but out of paper currency to invest
D. Goldminers, who stood to profit from the movement success
E. Farmers, who hoped that a more generous money supply wood is their debt burdens
65.) United States to control the Philippines in the 1898
C. After conquering the autonomous Philippine government
D. When Japan exchanged it for a promise of nonaggression
E. As the leader of a multinational coalition called in to suppress a revolution there
66.) "Free-speech would not protect a man falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing panic." The excerpt above is from a 1999 Supreme Court ruling prohibiting speech representing a "clear and present danger". the defendant in the case had
A. Given a speech urging black residents of Chicago to demand equal rights
B. Written a magazine article in support of the Russian revolution
C. Sent letters to military draftees arguing the conscription was illegal
D. Given a speech suggesting that Texas should be returned to Mexico
E. Posted flyers announcing a department store in St. Louis
67.) Another picture question, I cannot post as I do not have PRO VERSION
68.) the 1968 George Wallace presidential campaign on the American Independence ticket probably helped Richard Nixon win the election because
A. Losses races and directed voters attention away from the Watergate scandal
B. Wallace one several traditionally Democratic southern states
C. Wallace's participation sent election to the House of Representatives, where Nixon was more popular
D. In the final week, Wallace withdrew from the race and threw his support to Nixon
E. Wallace and Humphrey, the Democratic candidate, held similar views on all the major issues
69.) The English colonists who settled Virginia and the neighboring Indian tribes had wildly different attitudes about all the following subjects except
A. Weather property could be privately owned
B. What type of work was appropriate for men and women
C. Superiority of English society over Indian culture
D. The centrality of religion and daily life
E. The means by which leaders should receive an exercise power
70.) . Puritan immigration from England came to a near halt between the years 1649 and 1660 because during that period,
A. Most English Puritans were imprisoned for heresy
B. Most Puritans converted to Catholicism
C. New England settlement ever come to overcrowded, including a legislator strongly discouraged immigration
D. The Puritans controlled English government
E. Parliament outlawed travel to the new world
71.) The Monroe doctrine stated that the United States had legitimate reason to fear European intervention in the Western Hemisphere because
A. Europe's militaries were considerably more powerful than those of the United States
B. The overpopulation of Europe made future incursions the New World a real possibility
C. Europe's forms of government were fundamentally different from those of the United States and newly liberated South American countries
D. The United States anticipated reprisals for its frequent interference in European affairs
E. The United States ultimately intended to annex all of the Western Hemisphere
72.) supreme Court decisions concerning Native Americans in 1831 and 1832
A. Reinforced the rights of states to remove Native Americans disputed lands
B. Denied them the right to sue in federal court but affirmed their rights to land that was traditionally theirs
C. Voided previous treaties between native Americans and the United States on the grounds that the treaties were unfair
D. Granted tribes official status as foreign nations
E. Ruled that the federal government had a unilateral right to relocate Native Americans to lands west of the Mississippi
73.) in the 1830s, southern states passed a number of laws regarding the behavior of free blacks. These laws were intending to
A. Encourage free blacks to migrate to the north
B. Imposed a uniform procedure regarding the retrieval of fugitive slaves
C. Increase the pool of available black skilled laborers in the growing southern economy
D. Guarantee the rights of free blacks traveling through slave states
E. Create an official set of guidelines concerning "acceptable" treatment of slaves
74.) I want Means to the United States take possession of the Oregon territory?
A. United States was granted the territory in a postwar treaty was France
B. United States bought accommodative Americans who live there
C. The US settlers were the first to arrive the region;they claimed it for their country
D. Great Britain ceded it to the United States as part of a negotiated treaty
E. The French sold it to the United States is part of the Louisiana purchase
75.) which of the following was it the intended result of the Dawes severalty act of 1887?
A. Railroad companies would be persuaded to stop unfair pricing through a number of government incentives
B. Recently arrived European immigrants would be enticed into settling in a less populated west
C. Legislators would be less likely do accept bribes because of the severity of the penalty
D. Southern state legislatures would be motivated to strike racist laws from their books in return for greater federal aid
E. Native Americans would be coaxed off reservations by land grants and would thus assimilate into western culture.
76.) during the decade following the passage of the Sherman antitrust act, most courts applied the rule to break up
A. Railroad monopolies
B. Utility companies
C. Telegraph cartels
D. Labor unions
E. Political machines
77.) The term "welfare capitalism" refers to the corporate practice of
A. Providing social services for the unemployed poor who live near a factory
B. Offering workers incentives, such as pensions and profit-sharing, to dissuade them from joining unions
C. Marketing only to those potential customers who owe considerably below the national average wage
D. Raising prices in stores whenever AFDC checks are sent
E. Selling inventories to the Government at highly inflated prices
78.) The Underwood-Simmons tariff of 1913 was endorsed by
A. Opponents of Teddy Roosevelt's Square deal
B. Most Democrats who advocated lower duties
C. Supporters of Teddy Roosevelt's new nationalism
D. Opponents of Woodrow Wilson
E. Conservative Democrats who advocated high protective tariffs
79.) The agricultural adjustment act of 1933 sought to lessen the effects of the depression by
A. Paying farmers to cut production and, in some cases, destroy crops
B. Purchasing farms and turning them into government collectives
C. Instituting an early retirement program for farmers over the age of 50
D. Encouraging farmers to increase production
E. Subsidizing food processing plants in order to lower food prices
80.). During the 1960s, the student nonviolent coordinating committee's (SNCC)shifted its political agenda in which of the following ways?
A. Although it started as an antiwar organization, by the mid 1960s The SNCC was solely pursuing a civil rights agenda
B. The SNCC, initially a Christian organization, officially allied itself with the Nation of Islam in 1963
C. Although initially integrationist, by 1966 the SNCC advocated black separatism
D. The SNCC originally concerned itself exclusively with political issues on college campuses; over the years, the organization broadened its agenda.
E. The SNCC initially sought to achieve it's goals through litigation; later, it pursued it's agenda through peaceful demonstrations.
Born on the tiny island of Nevis, in the British West Indies, Alexander Hamilton (1757–1804) was a "natural" child, a curious but popular euphemism of the day, meaning that he was a bastard, born out of wedlock, the son of a Scottish merchant, James Hamilton., a man of good family but rather indolent and of little business ability. His common-law wife was Rachel Faucette, a rather well-to-do Creole of French Huguenot descent who had married a Dane and had long been separated from him. The law, however, blocked her from obtaining a divorce and remarrying. She and Hamilton had two sons, Alexander being the elder.
In later years, Hamilton's political and personal enemies made a number of remarks about Hamilton's illegitimacy. After a harsh quarrel, John Adams called him the "bastard brat of a Scots pedlar." Jefferson jibed at him as "that foreign bastard." An influential writer-editor-publisher of the day, James Callender, referred to him often as the "son of a camp girl." Such remarks were obviously unfair, and unworthy of those who made them.
In 1772, after the death of his mother and his father's bankruptcy, young Alexander, at the age of 15, was sent by Faucette relatives and family friends to the mainland to continue his education. Landing at Boston, Hamilton went to New Jersey to finish his preparatory studies and, in 1774, moved to New York City to enroll in King's College (a Church of England institution), soon renamed Columbia College, the original unit of Columbia University.
It was a time of crisis and confusion. The conflict between Britain and the thirteen colonies, long simmering, was coming to a boil and soon erupted into open hostilities after the clash of arms at Lexington and Concord. Young Hamilton, throughout his life a supporter of legally constituted authority, was at first inclined to be pro-British in his views and sympathies.
But he soon changed his mind, not because he subscribed to the then radical doctrines of Jefferson, Patrick Henry, Tom Paine, Sam Adams, George Mason, and other revolutionary democrats. And even more, not because he approved of the often riotous proceedings of the Sons of Liberty, who could be very rough on their Tory adversaries, most of them men of substantial property. Many of these Tories were tarred and feathered, or worse.
Hamilton always had the highest regard for property, and particularly for men who owned large quantities of it. He embraced the cause A the patriots (or "rebel scoundrels," as King George III termed them) because he had become a nationalist, swinging to the view that separation of the colonies from the mother country was not only inevitable, but desirable.
With characteristic boldness and energy, young Hamilton, still a collegian, organized a militia company and was elected captain. This was an artillery company, the self-styled "Hearts of Oak," whose bravery and military proficiency soon came to the attention of Gen. George Washington, commander-in-chief of Continental forces since June, 1775. The general was so impressed that, early in 1777, he made Hamilton a lieutenant colonel and called him to become his private secretary and confidential aide, a very responsible post for a youth just turned twenty.
For four years Hamilton served brilliantly at that post, being at Washington's side during the awful winter of 1777–1778 at Valley Forge and down to the culminating American victory at Yorktown where Hamilton, now a full colonel, led an assault that captured the key British redoubt.
Meanwhile, in 1780, Hamilton had married Elizabeth Schuyler, a laughter of Gen. Philip Schuyler, thus becoming a member of a rich and influential New York family, closely related to the Van Rensselaers and other old Dutch patroon families with their vast landed estates along both banks of the Hudson and elsewhere. Hamilton was now well on his way up the social and financial ladder.
After the war, Hamilton resumed his studies, became a lawyer, and soon opened his own office. He had many clients, but being a man of vast ambition, he found the routines of a private law practice not very challenging. They did not begin to use up his driving physical energy or satisfy his broad intellectual interests. More and more, he immersed himself in politics and public affairs. As one of New York's delegation to the 1782–1783 session of the Continental Congress, he saw for himself, to his dismay, the many weaknesses and disabilities of the national government under the Articles of Confederation.
Almost everyone agreed that the Articles should be amended to strengthen the powers and reform the procedures of the central government. But here agreement ended. Almost everyone — Washington, Jefferson, Franklin, Patrick Henry, George Mason, John Adams, Sam Adams, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, among many more — had his own notions about what an ideal constitution should contain. The notions privately entertained by Hamilton, which were extreme and almost incredibly authoritarian and politically simplistic, will be outlined later.
Hamilton made himself a leader in the movement to call a convention to consider revisions of the Articles of Confederation. Hamilton spoke for those who shared his view that the rights of property should be defended and secured above all else, that such rights provided the very foundation of society and orderly government, and that the existing government did not adequately protect such rights. To those holding these views the country was on the brink of disaster, especially because of fiscal and commercial problems.
But the people at large, and the highest authorities in most states, did not take this alarmist view. They did not see the nation facing any grave immediate crisis. Consequently, when the convention assembled at Annapolis in September, 1786, only five states were represented: New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, New Jersey, and Delaware. As it was obvious that no business could be done under the circumstances, the twelve delegates chose Hamilton to draft an address calling on all the states to send representatives to a new constitutional convention to meet in Philadelphia early in May the next year.
On the day the Philadelphia convention was to open, not enough states were represented to constitute a quorum. Several weeks passed before a quorum of seven was present. Delegations from five more states later came in. One state, Rhode Island, did not send a delegation. Radical and agrarian in its general views, it regarded the convention as a trap devised by large landed proprietors and rich conservative urban families to advance their special interests, a view widely held in other states.
Sitting from late May to mid-September, 1787, the Philadelphia convention adopted a document, a patchwork of compromises and accommodations between many sharply conflicting points of view, and the Congress sent copies of the proposed constitution to the state legislatures, each of which was to call a special convention to adopt or reject the proposal.
For reasons to be discussed later, Hamilton did not like the proposed constitution. But he felt that anything was better than the Articles of Confederation, and threw his full energies into efforts to secure ratification of the Philadelphia document. His main effort went into contributions to the long series of newspaper articles published in book form as The Federalist. Hamilton conceived the idea of the series and, as noted before, wrote most of the argumentative essays, with Madison and John Jay contributing others.
The fight for and against ratification was bitter, particularly in the larger states. By the end of July, 1788, the proposed constitution had been ratified by eleven states, the last two being Virginia and New York. This was two more than the requisite number. If Virginia had declined to ratify — and the margin was slim, 88 votes for, 80 against — New York would have followed suit and not ratified, and Pennsylvania would no doubt have reversed its close vote of approval, obtained by force and duress. It was stipulated that if nine states ratified the constitution, it was to go into effect immediately. But if the three largest, richest, and most populous states — Virginia, New York, and Pennsylvania — declined to ratify, there can be no doubt that the proposed constitution would have been sent back to another national convention for revision and amendment.
The Congress adjourned and there was technically no federal government until the following March, when the newly elected Congress met at New York. Washington became the first president of the United States and, for the two most important posts in his administration, chose Jefferson as secretary of state and Hamilton as secretary of the treasury.
Hamilton took hold of the duties of office in his usual brisk manner. Early in 1790, he submitted his first report on the public credit. National credit was in dire straits. The report dealt specifically with the debts inherited from the Confederation, which were considerable in terms of the day. Foreign debts owed by the government amounted to some $12,000,000, and domestic debts to some $45,000,000. In addition, the states had Revolutionary War debts estimated at $25,000,000.
To maintain the public credit and build confidence at home and abroad in the new government, to strengthen it by fostering interest among the business groups holding most of the domestic debt, Hamilton proposed that national, foreign, and domestic debts be funded at par value, and that the federal government assume, up to some $21,500,000, the debts incurred by the states during the years of the American Revolution.
Funding of the foreign debt aroused little opposition, but the plan to fund domestic national debt was bitterly attacked since much of the currency and many of the bonds had been sold to speculators at high discount, and the speculators rather than the original holders would be the ones to profit when the currency and bonds were redeemed at face value. The attack on the proposal that the national government assume responsibility for the repayment of state debts of certain kinds met with even heavier opposition, and the division took place along sectional lines.
In general, the northern states, especially those in New England, had the largest unpaid debts and therefore favored assumption which would ease their tax burden by spreading it around. On the other hand, most southern states had made arrangements to clear their indebtedness and therefore objected to a measure that would greatly increase the national debt, for the servicing of which their inhabitants would be taxed.
Virginia took the lead in opposing the assumption measure. In strong resolutions drafted by Patrick Henry, Virginia protested that Hamilton's scheme would profit and maintain a monied interest, that agriculture would be subordinated to commercial and financial interests, that the proposal would undermine republican institutions, and that there was "no clause in the Constitution authorizing Congress to assume the debts of states."
When the assumption bill came to its first vote in the House of Representatives, it was defeated. But Hamilton, never daunted, was not prepared to give up. He would make a deal. Meeting Madison at a dinner party arranged by Jefferson, he made a proposition: he would use his utmost influence to gather enough northern votes to assure that the national capital would be established along the Potomac, a step that should placate the southerners. In return, Madison should do his best to get enough southern votes to assure the adoption of the assumption measure.
Thus, instead of going to Philadelphia or New York, the largest cities, the national capital went south to the Potomac, to the District of Columbia, a ten-mile-square unsettled tract, not yet chosen, and where a city had yet to be built. in a real sense, Hamilton was the founder of Washington, D.C.
In his next bold step Hamilton proposed the chartering of a bank to be owned and operated by the national government, the Bank of the United States. When consulted about this by President Washington, Secretary of State Jefferson forcefully declared his opinion that such a step was clearly unconstitutional. Taking a "strict constructionist" view of the Constitution, Jefferson declared that chartering of a national bank was not one of the powers delegated to Congress.
Taking a "loose constructionist" view of the Constitution, and developing for the first time the doctrine of "implied powers," Hamilton replied that the national government had been empowered to collect taxes and regulate trade, and that a national bank was an efficient and proper means of executing that power. Such a bank was not forbidden by any particular provision of the Constitution, and therefore "it may safely be deemed to come within the compass of the national authority."
President Washington wavered between Jefferson's view and that of Hamilton, finally taking Hamilton's, thereby following his practice of accepting the counsel of the cabinet officer most immediately concerned in any question at issue.
Dissension within the Washington administration about national policies became ever more pronounced, with one group led by Hamilton, and the opposing one by Jefferson. Our political party structure had its origins in the conflicts here.
Hamilton spoke for those who believed, as he did, that the national government should actively promote the development of manufacturing, commerce, banking, and shipping. Infant American industries should be protected from competition by erecting high tariff barriers against foreign imports. This would be not only good in itself, but incidentally would produce considerable revenues for the national government.
There should be the strongest possible central government under strong executive leadership. The reins of power should be kept as far as possible from popular control. The country should be governed by an elite group, which, as Hamilton defined it, was the propertied class. As men of property literally "owned" the country, their voice in public affairs should be, if not exclusive, at least always predominant.
Opposing such views, Jefferson led those who distrusted an overriding central government. There should be a minimum of industrialization, urbanism, and organized finance. Wealth should be broadly diffused, to lessen the gap between rich and poor. The ideal society was a democratic agrarian order based on the individual freeholder. The people, acting through their elected representatives, should be left to govern themselves. Jefferson believed they had the ability to do so. Those who shared Jefferson's views began organizing groups that soon coalesced nationally as the Democratic-Republican party, which strongly opposed the measures advocated by The Federalist party headed by Hamilton.
The split between Hamilton and Jefferson was widened by the impact of the French Revolution which was well on its way by that historic July 14, 1789, when Parisians razed the hated fortress-prison, the Bastille, which was to become the symbol of autocratic oppression. This revolution shook to its foundations the ancien regime with all its semi-feudal trappings in church and state. Crowned heads throughout Europe began to tremble, particularly after France declared herself a republic and sent King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette to the guillotine, and many titled aristocrats and rich bourgeois as well.
After many provocations and attempts at intervention by foreign powers, revolutionary France declared war on Britain, Spain, and Holland, the start of a war that went on almost continuously for 22 years, ending with Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo in 1815.
Though deploring its excesses, Jefferson remained very sympathetic toward revolutionary republican France. Favoring monarchy and an aristocratic order of things, Hamilton was strongly pro-British. But the two men agreed on one point, and the most important: the United States should not become involved in any way in the European war. Each had a hand in drafting the proclamation President Washington issued in 1793 announcing American neutrality, though the word "neutrality" was not used.
In addition to other differences between Hamilton and Jefferson, a matter of personality was involved. Hamilton was always a difficult man to get along with, having a rather abrasive character. For one thing, he had no sense of humor, and took himself very seriously, which led him into many serious as well as silly quarrels that might well have been avoided. While he could be very charming when he pleased, he was often very arrogant, opinionated, and stubborn; and while not greedy or corrupt, he could be ruthless in advancing himself and the causes he favored.
Under President Washington, Hamilton began to attempt the functions of a prime minister on the British model. This very much annoyed Jefferson who, as secretary of state, held top rank and was ex officio the chief officer in the cabinet. But more than status was involved here. Jefferson and other cabinet officers were soon complaining that Hamilton, by his policies and practices as secretary of the treasury, was introducing into and interfering with the operations and decision-making of their departments as if he were, in fact, prime minister. At the end of 1793, Jefferson resigned as secretary of state, and issued a public blast against Hamilton, what he stood for, and what he was doing.
Hamilton was a danger to the country as constituted, said Jefferson. His fiscal system "flowed from principles adverse to liberty, . . . and was calculated to undermine and demolish the republic." In a real sense, this was true. To the end of his life, Hamilton openly avowed his dislike of republicanism, which was exceeded only by his distrust of the people and what he called "open democracy."
Early in 1795, Hamilton resigned as secretary of the treasury and returned to New York City to resume his law practice there. But he regained a powerful political influence behind the scenes. When President Washington decided to step down after his second term in office, it was Hamilton who drafted most of the celebrated "Farewell Address."
Though out of public office, Hamilton was always ready with counsel and advice, but the new president, John Adams, was not as receptive o it as Washington had been. On receiving Hamilton's recommendation or a very aggressive anti-French, pro-British foreign policy, which would have meant instant war, Adams exclaimed: "This man is stark read, or I am."
The president and Hamilton became estranged and soon violently quarreled, with Adams denouncing Hamilton as an "unprincipled intriguer." With the approach of the 1800 election, Adams wanted to continue as president and was furious when he discovered that Hamilton was working to defeat him by organizing Federalist support for another candidate.
The 1800 election resulted in a resounding Federalist defeat all along the line. The Democratic-Republicans had two presidential aspires Jefferson of Virginia (vice president under Adams) and Aaron Burr of New York City, a brilliant lawyer and an adroit political organizer and manipulator. It was Burr who put new life into the Society of St. Tammany in New York City, transforming it from merely a social club into an overpowering political force, the notoriously corrupt Tammany Hall of later years.
When the electoral college met after the election, the vote to designate the president resulted in a tie: 73 votes for Jefferson, the same for Burr, with John Adams trailing at 65. The other Federalist candidate, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, actively supported by Hamilton, ran close behind Adams with 64 votes. Thus Hamilton spiked President Adams' ambitions, and was to play an even more decisive role in choosing the next president. The tie vote in the electoral college threw the choice of a president to the House of Representatives, as the Constitution stipulated.
In the House, the balloting for the presidency went on and on, ballot after ballot. Finally, the Federalist members, after a caucus, decided to back Aaron Burr, but Hamilton objected. He and Burr had been rather close friends for years, but it appeared that from the start Hamilton had distrusted Burr and his intentions, describing him in his private correspondence as an "unprincipled and dangerous man." Hamilton disliked Jefferson and abhorred his Democratic-Republican principles, but he even more disliked what he regarded as Burr's blustering political opportunism. Concluding that Jefferson was the lesser of two evils, Hamilton swung the New York vote to Jefferson. On the thirty-sixth ballot, Jefferson became our third president, with Burr as vice president.
Hamilton received no reward for his action in breaking the presidential deadlock. His influence under the Jefferson administration was nil. All he gained was what he regarded as a good conscience and the lasting animosity of his old friend Burr. It was not long before the two men clashed again, and bloodily. In 1804, Burr decided that he would like to be governor of New York and offered himself as a candidate. Hamilton immediately came out of semi-retirement and did his best to defeat him, which he accomplished. Burr turned on Hamilton, informing him that he had it on good authority, in a published letter, that Hamilton, in company, had spoken of him as "despicable, . . . a dangerous man, and one who ought not be trusted with the reins of government." Burr demanded "satisfaction" in accord with the gentlemen's code of honor of the time.
As Hamilton in his pride was not prepared to issue a flat disclaimer of what he was reported to have said in company at one time, for he had often spoken ill of Burr, a duel was arranged, to be fought on the Jersey side of the Hudson, opposite Manhattan, on the heights at Weehawken, a favorite ground for such encounters. The field on Weehawken Heights was a doubly tragic one for the Hamiltons. Their oldest son, Philip, had been killed there in a duel three years previously, in 1801, while still a student at Columbia College.
In the very early morning of July 11, 1804, Hamilton and Burr faced each other with pistols at twenty paces. At the signal, two shots rang out and Hamilton fell forward, gravely wounded, shot through the groin. Carried back across the river in the barge on which he had come over, he was taken to a friend's house in lower Manhattan where he died the next-day, in his 47th year, a premature and tragic end for one who was a great American, no matter what one may think of his political and social philosophy. And in historical perspective, it should not be forgotten that Hamiltonianism has been a strong, often dominant, tone in American public and private life since his day, though its echoes may now be fading.
Whatever his other qualities, Hamilton had a strong, incisive, logical mind, unquestioned courage, boundless energy, deep devotion to duty, and an unremitting zeal in forwarding the public good along the lines he thought best. He also possessed a masterful pen as an advocate 'or whatever cause he favored. As his bitter and eventually fatal enemy Burr once remarked, with awe and reluctant admiration, "Anyone who puts himself down on paper with Hamilton is lost."