Social Ecological Theories- relationship of people to physical and social environments social disorganization- "bad" neighborhoods-institutions falling apart --> Facts suggesting a boarded up, dilapidated neighborhood with graffiti on the buildings suggests social disorganization theory. This breakdown in the physical structure of the neighborhood signals that the institutions in the neighborhood have fallen apart, necause they can no longer exercise social control over the residents to prevent them from breaking windows and writing frafitti everywhere (among other things). As a result of the collapse of institutions (family. school) in the neighborhood, social bonds weaken or even sever, and a sense of anomie (the rules an appropriate behavior are no longer clear) set in.Economic Deprivation- anger, fustration, etc. as a result of poverty relative Deprivation- envy-see what others have Usually envious of those who do not live in close proximity-however, crimes carried out against those who live close by.Deviant Places- overcrowded homes, dnse neighborhoods, and or stigmatized residentsRoutine Activites. Need a motivational perpetrator, bulnerable victims, and changes in ordinary societal practives and structural conditions (e.g. the alteration of school spaces or areas where children play after school) that results in a lack of supervision (thus rendering victims vulnerable).Strain Theories Anomie/Strain Theory- lack of harmony between goals and means anomie/strain if: inadequate meansoveremphasis of goalsWhy greater anomie for poor?5 adaptions/responses to anomie/strain (what are views toward goals and means?) conformityinnovation *Crime response*ritualismretreatismrebellionGeneral Strain Theory-other strains-emotional losses, negative addition For general strain theory to apply, it is sufficient that either something positive is removed (e.g. someone dies), ir something negative is added (strained relationship). You do not need bothSubcultural theories Status Frustration Theory- Fail in school, look for calidation from peers and get back at middle class societyFocal Concerts-Peer groups' warped balues lead to crime thrill-seeking, getting into trouble, acting tough ect.opposite of Milgram's experiment Subculture of Violence-hypermasculine, violent, easily provoked to fight at the slightest slight.Diferential Opportunity Theory- illicit opportunity structured in neighborhood. Code of the Street-People commit crimes because they perceive that they are disrespected--often violent responses to perceived insults/direspect.
- The general criticism of subcultural theoriesdon't account for middle class delinquent and crimeoverstate poor's value of and participation in crime