4/7/2010 1 Election of George Washington ? That Washington would be the first president was a foregone conclusion ? Many of the decisions of the framers in Philadelphia reflected the fact the they intended Washington to lead the new nation ? John Adams chosen to be vice president ? Felt the office was inconsequential ? Attempted to use his position as president of the Senate to shape that body ? Senators rejected his attempts; Adams left in a huff and lost any opportunity to craft a strong position for vice presidents Presidential Supremacy ? President?s allowed to remove those under his authority ? Creek Indian affair ? 1789 ?Washington sought ?advice and consent? of the senate to negotiate a treaty with the Creek Indians ? No later presidents ever consulted the Senate in the same way Nonpartisanship ? The presidency is a nonpartisan office ? It was contrary to Washington?s principles to try to influence either congressional elections or the legislative process; the primary duty of the president was to execute the laws Neutrality Proclamation of 1793 ? War between Britain and France erupted in 1793 ? Widening rift between Hamilton and Jefferson ? Alexander Hamilton believed the French Revolution had degenerated into mob rule ? He and his Federalist supporters sided with England 4/7/2010 2 ? Jefferson (top), Madison and fellow Democratic-Republicans endorsed the sacred republican cause of the French Revolution ? Argued that Hamilton?s support of England revealed his preferences for monarchy ? Washington issued the Neutrality Proclamation in 1793 ? U.S. would ?adopt and pursue a conduct friendly and impartial to the belligerent powers.? ? Americans were prohibited from aiding the powers in hostilities or providing them with items considered to be contraband ? Hamilton defended the Neutrality Proclamation by offering a sweeping justification of discretionary presidential power The Whiskey Rebellion ? 1794 ?militant opposition to a national excise tax on the production of whiskey, particularly in 4 western counties of Pennsylvania ? Whiskey used like money as a medium of exchange ? Mingo Creek society ? a local Democratic- Republican organization ? stimulated resistance ? Aug. 7, 1794 Washington issued proclamation ordering the rebels to disperse ? Asked governors of NJ, MD, and VA to supply a militia army to put down the rebellion ? Washington himself accompanied the troops ? The rebellion dissolved (2 were convicted of treason and later pardoned by Washington) ? Because of the Mingo Creek society, other Democratic-Republicans found themselves in a politically vulnerable position ? Federalists capitalized and won full control of Congress in the 1794 midterm election 4/7/2010 3 The Jay Treaty ? Signed in London in Nov., 1794 ? Pledge from Britain to evacuate its northwest military posts ? Won limited rights for US ships to trade with the British West Indies ? Some secret terms of the treaty were leaked to Democratic-Republican press in late June, 1795 ? political firestorm erupted ? Both Washington and Chief Justice John Jay (president?s envoy) were targets of vicious partisan attacks ? The Jay Treaty was the issue that galvanized Hamiltonians and Jeffersonians into organized political parties ? Democratic-Republicans tried to make hostility to the Jay Treaty the central campaign issue in 1796?it backfired, resulting in the election of Adams and Federalist gains in Congress The 1796 Election ? The 1796 election marked the first time in history that power passed from one ?ruling? administration to another without force of arms ? It also provoked actual fights and violence in several cities ? Jefferson branded an atheist by Federalists ? Adams accused of being a pro-British monarchist John Adams ? Adams elected with 71 electoral votes ? Jefferson chosen vice president with 68 votes ? Washington?s presidency was succeeded by an administration headed by the leaders of two hostile political organizations ? Though Adams was president, real force was still Hamilton ? Only two of Adams? cabinet members were loyal to him; rest owed their positions to Hamilton The Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 ? Alien Act gave the president authority to expel foreigners suspected of subversion ? Sedition Act made it a crime, punishable by fine or imprisonment, to bring ?false, scandalous and malicious? accusations against the president, Congress, or the government 4/7/2010 4 The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions of 1798 ? The major constitutional attack to the Sedition Act came in resolutions drafted by Jefferson and Madison and passed by the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures in Nov. and Dec. of 1798 ? They denounced the Sedition Act in part because it threatened freedom of expression ? Main issue was the limitations of congressional power and the argument that the law infringed upon the powers of the states ? Doctrine of interposition ? The Alien Act generally seen as a defensible attempt at self-protection ? The Sedition Act was widely denounced as unconstitutional ? 10 people convicted under the Act ? The Act expired in and Congress made no attempt to extend it ? Those sentenced were later pardoned by Jefferson The Bank of the United States ? Hamilton?s plan was to create a central bank similar to the Bank of England ? Depository of government funds, issue currency, regulate smaller banks, become the fiscal agent of the government, facilitate tax collection, stimulate the flow of capital into and around the country ? Madison opposed its creation ? Bank bill passed by House and Senate The Judiciary Act of 1789 ? The Senate appointed a committee on April 7, 1789, to draw up a court plan ? Plan was approved Sept. 24, 1789 ? Provided for a Supreme Court with a chief justice and 5 associate justices ? Each state to have 1 district court (except MA and VA?2) ? Created complicated circuit court system ? Section 13 gave the Court the power of mandamus in original jurisdiction Election of 1800 ? Formal party organizations were in place ? Congressional caucuses chose nominees for president and vice president Election of 1800 -- Federalists ? Without having been formally nominated, President Adams stood as the Federalist candidate for reelection ? Charles Cotesworth Pinckney of SC was the vice presidential candidate 4/7/2010 5 The Democratic-Republicans ? Jefferson was the D-R candidate for president ? Aaron Burr of New York was the nominee for vice president ? Federalist campaigners urged voters to choose ?God?and a religious President? over ?Jefferson . . . and no God? ? Federalists warned that if Jefferson was elected, ?Murder, robbery, rape, adultery and incest will be openly taught and practiced.? ? Jefferson received 73 votes ? Burr received 73 votes ? Adams received 65 votes ? Burr refused to concede ? Election went to House of Representatives ? Hamilton supported Jefferson---the lesser of two evils ? The deadlock prompted passage of the 12th Amendment (1804) Judiciary Act of 1801 ? The lame-duck Congress passed the Judiciary Act of 1801 ? It reduced the size of the Supreme Court by one, denying Jefferson the ability to fill the next vacancy ? Created 6 new circuit courts with 16 permanent judges, together with clerks, marshals and attorneys The Organic Act for the District of Columbia ? Congress created 42 justices of the peace for D.C. ? Adams had to scramble to fill the positions; William Marbury was appointed for one of the 42 j-o-p jobs in D.C. Collectively, these are the ?Midnight judges? John Marshall ? Adams offered the chief justiceship to John Jay, who refused ? Adams nominated John Marshall on Jan. 20, 1801. He was confirmed on Jan. 27 4/7/2010 6 Jefferson Takes Office ? Jefferson?s first act as president was to pardon all people convicted under the Sedition Act (later, Congress remitted their fines) Jefferson and the Judiciary ? To Jefferson, the Judiciary Act of 1801, the Organic Act for the District of Columbia, and Adams? appointment of the midnight judges represented nothing more than court-packing ? In 1801, not a single Democratic-Republican sat on a federal court ? Nothing but death or resignation would allow him to rectify the situation ? Jefferson?s plan was to abolish the new courts and, in the process, eliminate the judges ? In March, 1802, Congress repealed the Judiciary Act of 1801 with the Amendatory Act ? Dealing with John Marshall, however, would not be so easy Impeachment of Samuel Chase ? March 12, 1804, the House voted 8 articles of impeachment against Justice Samuel Chase ? Trial began Feb. 4, 1805, presided over by Vice President Aaron Burr ? Chase acquitted Marbury v. Madison ? Some of the Midnight Judgeship commissions were not delivered ? William Marbury sued, asking the Supreme Court to issue a writ of mandamus to Madison, ordering him to deliver the commission Marbury v. Madison ? John Marshall was left with tough decision ? Outcome was to declare Section 13 of the 1789 Judiciary Act unconstitutional 4/7/2010 7 Jefferson?s Legacy ? While he considered himself a ?constitutionalist,? Jefferson used expansive powers when necessary, as with the purchase of the Louisiana Territory in 1803, doubling the size of the United States James Madison ? While considered the Father of the Constitution, he was woefully inept at governing?.. ? War of 1812 ? He was eclipsed by the Speaker of the House Rise of the House ? Henry Clay ? First elected to US Senate in 1806 at the age of 29 ? Clay organized the House, providing structure and leadership ? Introduced the committee system ? The Speaker became, effectively, the most powerful man in government James Monroe ? Believed in legislative supremacy ? Missouri Compromise ? Maine admitted as a free state, issue of slavery temp. resolved in LA Territory by banning it north of MO?s southern border (36°30?) The Monroe Doctrine ? President?s right to take initiative in foreign affairs reinforced by Monroe Doctrine ? President alarmed by reports that European powers (France, Russia) were interested in several of the new Latin American Nations and in the Pacific Northwest ? Dec. 2, 1823 ?Monroe included in his State of the Union message a sweeping statement that proclaimed the Americas independent from European influence Election of 1824 Andrew Jackson (TN) Henry Clay (KY) William Crawford (GA) John Quincy Adams (MA) 4/7/2010 8 1824 -- Issues ? Sectional rivalries ? All supported protective tariffs ? Federal program of internal improvements ? Slavery not yet a divisive issue ? Adams?support in New England and manufacturing interests; also support in NY ? Jackson and Crawford drew from the South ? Jackson and Clay divided the west 1824 Popular vote Electoral vote ? Jackson 152,933 (42%) 99 (11) ? Adams 115,696 (32%) 84 (7) ? Clay 47,136 (13%) 37 (3) ? Crawford 46,979 (13%) 41 (3) total 261 Votes needed 261 x .5 + 1 = 131 Election goes to House ? John C. Calhoun elected Vice President by Electoral College 182 to 79 ? 12th Amendment ? House must choose from TOP 3 electoral vote getters ? Clay dropped from consideration; supported Adams ? Adams won on first ballot 13-7-4 ? Clay awarded with Sec. of State John Quincy Adams ? Last president of the Jeffersonian Era ? Viewed himself as a minority president ? Began practice of recommending legislation to Congress ? Country wasn?t ready for an assertive executive ? 1830, elected to House as an Anti-Mason (later he became a Whig) and served 17 years The Age of Jackson Election of 1828 ? The chaotic political situation that plagued the election of 1824 (4 candidates ran for president) had been replaced by a new political party alignment ? Democratic-Republicans divided into 2 major factions ? Adams and Henry Clay (National Republicans) ? Jackson and Calhoun (Old Democrats) 4/7/2010 9 ? Jackson won with 56% of the popular vote and 178 Electoral votes ? Adams lost with 44% of the popular vote and 83 Electoral votes ? In 1832, the first presidential election in which candidates were chosen at national party conventions, Democrats met in Baltimore in May, 1832 to endorse Jackson for reelection; he chose Van Buren of NY at V.P. (Calhoun resigned in 1832 over tariff and nullification issues) ? Jackson was the first political ?outsider? to become president and the first to be considered ?popularly elected? ? Jackson regarded the president as the ?tribune? of the people ? he tried to establish a direct connection between the president and the people, thereby challenging Congress? status as the national government?s principle representative institution Jackson and Congress ? Presidency had been transformed from a congressionally to a popularly based office ? The Whig party (from Scottish ?Whiggamores?) offered vigorous opposition to the Democrats ? The American Plan ? recharter Bank of the U.S., enact protective tariffs, foster internal improvements; challenged states? rights policies of the Democrats ? Whigs resisted the expansion of executive power ? Whigs defended Congress? traditional status as the principle instrument of republican government ? Whigs were not the major party in the Senate; they forged coalition with Calhoun National Bank ? Second Bank of the United States ? 20 year charter due to expire in 1836; its president, Nicholas Biddle, applied for an early re-charter in 1832 (at the urging of Clay and Webster) Nicholas Biddle ? Congress passed a bill re-chartering the Bank; Jackson vetoed it July 10, 1832 ? Supreme Court had already ruled on constitutionality of the Bank in McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) ? Congress failed to override the veto ? Election of 1832, Jackson overwhelmingly defeated Henry Clay ? Jackson?s victory confirmed his conviction that the president, not Congress, was the people?s true representative in Washington 4/7/2010 10 Nullification Crisis ? In 1832 Jackson signed into law a moderate tariff, less exacting than the Tariff of Abominations (J. Adams). ? South Carolina quickly enacted the Ordinance of Nullification declaring the tariff null and void in that state ? Jackson responded, warning S.C. to comply with the tariff law: ?Disunion by armed forces in treason.? ? Crisis ended with passage of the Tariff of 1833, a compromise bill sponsored by Clay Calhoun Resigns ? In 1832 Vice President John C. Calhoun, of South Carolina, resigns due to disagreement over issues of tariff and nullification Other Things to Remember ? Spoils system ? Barron v. Baltimore (1833) Martin Van Buren ? Secretary of State (1829-31) and V.P. (1833-37) under Jackson ? Panic of 1837 ? Caused by death of the National Bank, promulgation of the Specie Circular and the resultant credit crunch, successive crop failures, and unfavorable balance of trade with England Panic of 1837 ? Banks in New York City and, subsequently, elsewhere, suspended converting paper money into gold and silver, touching off a nationwide panic that gave way to economic depression until 1843 ? 900+ banks collapsed across the country ? food riots broke out in some cities ? Van Buren proposed and Congress created a system of independent subtreasuries Independent Treasury Act, 1840 ? Federal funds deposited safely ? Repealed in 1841, but restored in 1846 ? The economic slump was a major factor in Van Buren?s defeat in 1840 4/7/2010 11 William Henry Harrison ? Professional soldier, he served in the Indian wars in the Northwest Territory and the War of 1812 ? 1811, Battle of Tippecanoe against Tecumseh and the Prophet; ended organized Indian resistance to white settlement in the territory ? Harrison inaugurated march 4, 1841 ? Gave longest inauguration speech in history (1 hour and 40 minutes) ? Came down with a cold, diagnosed as ?bilious pleurisy? ? Died April 4, 1841 ? Succeeded by Vice President John Tyler ? Dubbed ?his accidency,? Tyler was the first VP to succeed to the presidency ? Controversy erupted over whether he remained VP and carried out presidential functions, or whether he actually became president ? From the beginning, he regarded himself as president James K. Polk ? First ?Dark Horse? candidate ? Mexican War, 1846-1848 ? Annexation of Texas ? Asserted executive function ? Demonstrated the capacity of the presidency as a war agency ? Last president of the Jacksonian Era Zachary Taylor ? Nothing to really talk about?.just filling in space until Lincoln??.. Millard Fillmore ? Compromise of 1850 was Henry Clay?s final attempt to resolve the slavery issue and forestall civil war ? Fillmore embraced all aspects of the policy 4/7/2010 12 Compromise of 1850 ? California admitted as free state; residents of other states created from territory taken from Mexico to decide for themselves ? borders of TX defined, NM Territory est., UT Territory est. ? Fugitive Slave Act required fed govt to take active part in returning fugitive slaves to their masters ? Slave trade abolished in D.C. Franklin Pierce ? Gadsden Purchase, 1853 ? Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854 ? Sponsored by Sen. Stephen Douglas ? Repealed Missouri Compromise ? Settles in KS and MO to decide for themselves issue of slavery ? ?Bleeding Kansas? ? John Brown?s raid at Pottawatomie Creek May 4, 1856 James Buchanan ? Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) Abraham Lincoln Andrew Johnson ? Attempted to retain executive power established by Lincoln, but came to blows with Congress ? Tried to follow through with Lincoln?s plan for reconstruction of the South, but Radical Republicans in Congress had other ideas Impeachment ? Congress enacts, over Johnson?s veto, the Tenure of Office Act in 1867 ? Seven Republican senators bolted party ranks to join Democrats in exonerating the president: Ross (KS), Fessenden (ME), Henderson (MO), Van Winkle (WV), Trumbull (IL), Fowler (TN), Grimes (IA) 4/7/2010 13 Hiram Ulysses Simpson Grant ? Administration marked by scandal ? Lowest point in the history of the presidency (until Nixon) Rutherford B. Hayes ? Dubbed ?Rutherfraud? following Compromise of 1877 which put Hayes in the White House and ended Reconstruction in the South Compromise of 1877 ? Hayes admitted he thought he lost election to Sam Tilden ? Tilden won popular vote ? electoral votes in SC, LA, and FL in confusion (all controlled by Republicans) ? Congress established 15-member commission; voted 8-7 for Hayes ? Southern Democrats threatened open rebellion; Hayes agreed to end military occupation of the South James Garfield ? Assassinated by Charles Guiteau; died Sept 19, 1881 ? Lead to passage of the Pendleton Act of 1883 Chester Arthur ? Removed as Customs Collector for NY by Hayes for graft ? Garfield?s VP ? Passage of Pendleton Act Grover Cleveland ? Only president to serve two, non-consecutive terms 4/7/2010 14 Benjamin Harrison ? Sherman Anti-Trust Act, 1890 William McKinley ? Spanish-American War, 1898 ? Assassinated Sept. 6, 1901; died Sept. 14, 1901 by Leon Czolgosz, a self-avowed anarchist Theodore Roosevelt FDR and Beyond: Ascendance of the Modern President Teddy Roosevelt ? McKinley?s Vice President; succeeded to the office upon the death of the incumbent (assassination) ? Ran in 1904; following the tradition, refused to seek a third term in 1908 (although he would have been reelected easily) ? 1912 -- came back to run as Bull Moose Progressive against incumbent Taft and Dem. Challenger Woodrow Wilson Panama Canal ? Panama was part of Columbia; when treaty terms with Columbia re canal became unpopular, TR supported revolution in Panama in Nov., 1903; TR recognized new country and entered into treaty with Panama for construction of canal 4/7/2010 15 Roosevelt Corollary and Big Stick Diplomacy ? Obligation of U.S. to enforce Monroe Doctrine and to intervene anywhere in Latin America to maintain stability ? TR insisted on U.S. hegemony in the Western Hemisphere?. ?Speak softly and carry a big stick and you will go far.? Big Stick Diplomacy TR and Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) ? Orchestrated the Treaty of Portsmouth between Russia and Japan in their struggle over control of Manchuria and Korea ? Awarded Nobel Peace Prize in 1906 William Howard Taft ? ?Dollar Diplomacy? ? Marshaling military might and diplomatic influence to promote American business interests abroad ? Defended Dollar Diplomacy as an extension of the Monroe Doctrine Woodrow Wilson ? Political scientist; president of Princeton; Gov. of New Jersey ? World War I, 1914-1918 ? Failure of League of Nations ? Suffered stroke in Sept., 1919 ? Awarded Nobel Peace Prize in 1919 Franklin D. Roosevelt ? Gov. of NY, 1929-1933 ? Elected in 1932 with 57% of popular vote; reelected in 1936 with 61%; reelected in 1940 with 55%; reelected 1944 with 53% 4/7/2010 16 ? The New Deal ? Court-packing in 1937 ? Good Neighbor policy toward Latin America ? World War II, 1939-1945 ? Died in Warm Springs, GA April 12, 1945 Harry S Truman ? U.S. Senator, 1935-1945; VP March-April 1945 ? Ran against Thomas Dewey (R) of NY in 1948 ? Creation of the United Nations ? Truman Doctrine -- ?I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.? ? NATO -- 1949 ? Korean War, 1950-1953 ? Fair Deal -- domestic policy ? Housing Act of 1949; increase in minimum wage; extension of Social Security coverage; desegregation of armed forces Dwight Eisenhower ? WWII general; president of Columbia University (1948-50); Supreme Commander, NATO, 1951-52 ? Ran against Adlai Stevenson (D) of IL; first TV ads ? Won with 55% of the vote; reelected in 1956 with 57% ? VP was Richard Nixon ? Conclusion of Korean War (1953) ? Cold War ? Eisenhower Doctrine -- U.S. has the right to aid any country threatened by Communist aggression or subversion ? ?domino theory? John F. Kennedy ? Bay of Pigs Invasion, 1961 ? Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 ? Berlin Crisis-- Aug., 1961 ? Peace Corps -- 1961 ? Alliance for Progress -- U.S. to provide billions of dollars to aid Latin America 4/7/2010 17 Lyndon Baines Johnson ? Vietnam War escalated ? Tonkin Gulf Resolution ? Operation Rolling Thunder (Feb. 1965) ? March, 1965 -- 3,500 Marines to Danang ? Antiwar movement at home grows Richard Milhous Nixon ? Vietnam War ? steadily reduced U.S. involvement in the war; expanded fighting beyond borders of Vietnam into Cambodia and Laos ? 1970 Congress repealed Gulf of Tonkin Res. ? Aug., 1972 last ground troops withdrawn ? cost of war: 58,000 dead; 304,000 wounded; $110 billion Nixon Administration ? New China Policy ? Feb. 1972, Nixon went to China ? SALT Agreement, 1972 James Earl ?Jimmy? Carter, Jr. ? Camp David Accords, 1978 ? Egyptian President Anwar Sadat ? Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin ? Led to a formal peace treaty in March, 1979, ending a 31-year state of war between Egypt and Israel ? American Hostages in Iran, 1979-1981 Carter Doctrine ? Carter Doctrine -- ?any attempt by an outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf region will be regarded as an assault on the vital interests of the United States. It will be repelled by the use of any means necessary including military force.? Ronald Wilson Reagan 4/7/2010 18 George Herbert Walker Bush William Jefferson Clinton ?W? Barack Obama smith.3280 Slide 1
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