Sociology 210 February 15, 2010 Sociology 210 Segregation Measuring segregation Historical construction of segregation After the end of legal segregation Policy debates today Uneven impact: Katrina Measuring segregation Milwaukee Massey and Denton (demographers) Segregation decreased 1940-1980, but then went up a bit by 2000 Historical construction of segregation Massey and Denton (1992) What are the factors contributing to persistent urban segregation? Middle- and upper-class blacks still tend to live in segregation Latinos and Asians tend to move out segregation when they make money AA?s express fear about racial violence if they move out of their areas White attitudes: much more supportive of segregation; prefer not to live in mixed area (crime, property values) -> neighborhoods less desirable when AA?s move in History of the ghetto Violence, race riots Realtors raise fears ? whites shown more houses in more areas than black customers Neighborhood groups enforced borders (i.e. white residents boycotted businesses that served blacks, tried to find zoning laws to keep blacks out, raise funds to buy out properties from blacks that moved in) Banks? redlining ? fewer loans to black areas; blacks much more likely to be rejected for mortgages/loans with same ?stats? as a white family Government policies After the end of legal segregation 1948: Racial covenants unconstitutional Civil rights movement 1968: law passed prohibiting discrimination in sale or rental of housing Great law, but how do you prove discrimination? No grounds for enforcement; just private actions by civil rights group (sent testers; black and white with similar income/jobs, see if white person got place over black person) Extreme statute of limitations 1980: 55% of families in census tract lived under poverty line 1968-1988: only about 1 in 100,000 discrimination cases taken to court Patillo, Black on the Block (2007) ? North Kenwood, Chicago Policy debates today Long-lasting effects of segregation shape individual opportunities even after segregation is illegal Current policy approaches: Wilson: provide jobs and education for the ?truly disadvantaged? When middle-class blacks move out of ghettoes, leaves more poverty in ghettoes Patillo: persuade middle class to stay or return to inner-city neighborhoods Prevent loss of black leadership/black middle-class that Wilson pointed to Fairly successful strategy ? demographic changes positive 1990-2000 Conflicts in bringing more middle-class in: Use of land People probably want to move out Didn?t predict uneven impact of subprime mortgage crisis Subprime mortgages Blacks 2.3x more likely and Hispanics 2x as likely to get high-cost loans in 2006 than whites with similar ?stats? Uneven impact: Katrina Two conflicting statements, poll (Dawson, 2005): Either: Most residents of New Orleans who were trapped by the flood wanted to leave the city but simply did not have the resources to evacuate, or Most residents of New Orleans who were trapped by the flood were too stubborn to evacuate Dark blue: black; Light blue: white Left: first statement; Right: Second statement Though everybody is hit by a natural disaster, people with assets and wealth to ?pick themselves up? are much less affected (long-term) than poor people
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