Lecture 04/12 Marcus Garvey Marcus Garvey as a Rce Leader was a race leader- spurred movement called Garveyism rhetorical needs fit perfectly with the aspirations and fears of his audience A. Jamaican Background born and went to school here ? stopped school at age 14 (as what typical) apprenticeship that helped him be able to start a newspaper became fascinated with the idea of oration ? orators competed with each other in the park ? he liked this atmosphere practiced o oration, taught others about oration failed newspaper ? moved to Central and South America saw ex-patrioted ex-Indians working as laborers and being exploited ? huge impression on him eventually developed thoughts ? moved back to 1914 ? sent note to Washington ? was invited to attend Tuskegee (prized personal invitation) Washington died in 1915 followed through with plans to come to US in 1916 B. Garvey in the US (1916-1927) Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) urged blacks throughout the WORLD to unite and advance under the motto ?one god, one aim, one destiny? opened NY division improve universal black edu., Worldwide industrial black intercourse, establish nation for the black race (wanted it to cover all of Africa) established manufacturing company for black dolls, publishing house, grocery store, etc. ? all based on notion of black pride, solidarity and power best known of enterprises was the black star line Black Star Line linked black people throughout the world ? PURPOSE commercially and socially steamship company without second class accommodations (like they got on white steamship companies) economic connection of blacks throughout the world based on Washington's notions of economic solidarity and progress LOTS of EXCITEMENT in the black community covered in black and white world ? sale of stock could only be for black people ? egalitarian dimension ? only could have 200 shares he said about it: that it was the time for negro to invest in black star line so that in future he would have the same influence in the world as the white man had today had sold enough stock to purchase first ship (very hard because they were so expensive) after 3 months within a year- had more than 600,000 dollars and had another ship or two which made several voyages attracted incredible attention when ships docked in NY ? lots of coverage in press and excitement in community Arrest and Deportation (1922) arrested by federal government on using mail to sell black star stock agents infiltrated UNIA ? sold stock for steamship before purchase had been made freed on bail for 17 months until trial in May 1923 found guilty at the end of his trial appealed verdict- appeals denied and he was put into Atlanta prison ? continued to write from his prison for 2 years left and never came back to the US after Mass Appeal during his 11 years in US had a lot of mass appeal possibly 6 million members of UNIA all over the world branches throughout the US 200 branches outside the US Garvey as a Rhetoricians A. Orator was very captivating as an orator ? everyone talked about his oratorical power was trained by himself in Kinston as an orator unknown when he got to NY- started as a street corner orator in Harlem at that time Harlem was very different ? people would stand on street corners and would attract TONS of attention ? lots of talented speakers but was obviously one the best B. Publisher (Negro World) had been trained as orator BUT also as a printed created his own newspaper over 20,000 in US circulated ALL over the world internationally- banned by countries because of fear of black colonization was smuggled into African ? ended up in hands of African nationalists ? gathered together and someone who could read affected Afircan oratory tradition ? Africans were hungry for some doctrine to lift them from the servile way of life they suffered black pride, black nationalism, racial pride, racial unity, even advertising, all in principle with the negro world emphasis on passing ? very light skinned blacks passed as whites ? emphasis on desirability on being light skinned enough to pass- many black leaders were light skinned (still an issue today) products available to make people seem more white were widely advertised Symbolic Propagandist for all of his use of the printed word, also understood psychologic appeal that came from non-verbal symbols and physical activities complimented the written and spoken word created not just the UNIA but created paegantary to go with the UNIA Garvey militia ? not armed the black nobility the african legion the black cross all had special fancy uniforms wore a plumed hat- breathtaking for others called a clown because of his uniforms but people on street who watched his parades liked them
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