Social Emotional Physical Intellectual Human beings develop in 4 different aspects of growth. The areas are all inter-connected, so when one is affected it may influence the others. Physical development involves both the growth and motor (movement) skills of the child. Growth refers to a measurable change in size, such as height and weight. Development refers to an increase in physical, emotional, social, or intellectual skills. Boys may lag behind girls in growth and development as much as 2 years. The satisfactory growth of a child is measured in “percentiles” on a chart. A percentile is a statistical value on a scale of one hundred that indicates whether a distribution is above or below it. If a child’s weight falls on the 50th percentile for his age, that means 50% of all other children his age weigh more, and 50% of all other children his age weigh less. If a child’s height falls on the 90% percentile for his age, it means that 10% of all children his age will be taller than he is, and 90% of all children his age will be shorter than he is. Factors influencing how children grow: genetic potential, medical problems, and nutritional status An additional factor influencing development: practice Nature vs. Nurture Nature vs. Nurture Slide show Debate http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UzXbbNDXB8A Nature v. Nurture Slide Show Debate (Full Version) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YirLJpHuYS8&feature=related Characteristics of Development Development is similar for everyone Development builds on earlier learning Development proceeds at an individual rate Development is interrelated Development is continuous throughout life Development follows an orderly, step-by-step sequence in three different patterns: Cephalo-caudal development is a “head-to-foot” pattern. Prenatally and at birth the newborn’s head is proportionately larger; development continues downward. Proximal-distal (proximodistal) development is an “inward-to-outward” pattern. Development starts at the trunk of the body and moves further outward. Simple-to-complex development is a pattern relating to the difficulty of tasks. Babies start with simply eating and sleeping and progress from there. Tasks involving a combination of motions is more complex. As the muscles of the eye strengthen in the newborn, eyesight improves rapidly. Along with that comes an improvement in two abilities that influence physical development. Depth Perception is the ability to recognize that an object is three-dimensional, not flat. This ability is not present at birth, but appears sometime during the second month and improves over a number of years. Hand-eye coordination is the ability to move the hands and fingers precisely in relation to what is seen through vision. This helps in the satisfactory performance of many skills , including eating, catching a ball, coloring, tying shoes, writing, threading a needle, playing a keyboard, and playing sports. Motor skills, often referred to as locomotion, are abilities that depend on the use and control of muscles. Mastering these skills, although seemingly just a physical development skill, relies heavily on intellectual, social, and emotional development. The first motor skills to be developed are the “gross” motor skills. These involve the use of larger muscles in the body such as the trunk, neck, arms, and legs. Skills might include running, jumping, hopping, skipping, throwing, and catching. Balance is the ability to maintain a position. Coordination is the capacity to move through a set of movements, from simple to complex, as well as repetition. Both balance and coordination are necessary for performance of gross motor skills. Balance and coordination depend on the interaction of multiple body organs and systems including the eyes, ears, brain and nervous system, cardiovascular system, and muscles. Rolls tummy-to-back at 5 months and back- to-tummy at 6 months. Continuous steps alternating feet. Arms are in opposition to legs: If the right foot is forward, swing the left arm forward. This pattern of right leg forward – left arm forward was first seen in crawling. As the right hand moved forward – the left leg moved forward. As speed, balance, and coordination improve, the child will run. Walking involves a smooth transfer of weight from the heel to the toe. When a child walks toe first, they appear to have a light, bouncing motion. (Runway models do this deliberately to add sway to their walk.) Until the child can climb up and downstairs without assistance, a gate may be used at the top and bottom of the stairway to prevent falls. The crawling infant simply crawls upstairs on hands and knees, and comes back down backwards. There are two patterns of stair-climbing: Marking time – the child will step up with one foot, then bring the other foot up to the same step; repeat (this occurs first) Alternating feet – the child will step up on one step with one foot, then bring the next foot up to the step above the first; repeat (this follows marking time) In order to kick a ball successfully, the arms are needed to maintain balance, and a backswing motion in the kicking leg should develop and be a help rather than a hindrance. To successfully throw a ball, the body should rotate, weight should shift from one foot to another (in a right-handed throw, the weight shifts from the right foot to the left foot), the arm should be back and to the side and follow-through after the throw. Catching a ball is an excellent way to observe proximal-distal development. The child begins by trapping the ball between the trunk of the body and the arms. He then moves to use of the arms and hands, and still later to the hands and fingers. Dribbling a ball cannot be done successfully until the eye muscles improve and depth perception become apparent. The child must see the ball, judge the distance of the ball, and hit the ball on it’s way UP (complex eye-hand coordination). To hit the ball on the way “down” makes a “slapping” sound does not allow for extended dribbling. To dribble and walk or run at the same time increases the level of complexity of this task. To control the direction of the ball, the fingers must be employed. Series of step-hops changing lead foot after hop. One knee is raised. Arms swing from shoulders, one forward, one back, in opposition to knee that is raised in front. This is a combination of motions and an advanced motor skill. Rhythmic step-leap movements leading with the same foot forward throughout. Front foot steps forward and back foot pulls up to front foot with a shuffle. Arms in opposition, (as described in marching). Once again, galloping is a combination of motions, making it an advanced motor skill. Hopping: Done by standing on one foot and jumping up off the floor with a pause in between. For balance, hands on waist or arms outstretched to sides. Jumping: Both feet leave floor and land at the same time. Bend knees and press feet into floor to begin and land. Arms outstretched to sides for balance After the gross motor skills, the “fine” motor skills develop. These skills involve the use of smaller muscles in the body, such as those of the eyes, hands, fingers, feet, and toes. Many “fine” motor skills require increased manual dexterity. Dexterity is skilled use of the hands in manipulation of objects. By the age of 5, most children have practiced and established a preference for using their right or left hand. A few people will be ambidextrous, meaning they are able to use both hands with equal skill. Mitten grasp: the palm and fingers oppose the thumb Pincer grasp: thumb and forefinger opposition Children may prefer to use, or demonstrate more accuracy with larger crayons or pencils until the pincer grasp is well-defined. In order to outline a picture in a coloring book or accurately print their name on a line, the child must have improved eye-hand coordination and fine motor skills. They must see the line, and judge the placement of the letters on the line. If perception is not defined, letters will “float” above or below the line. A well-defined pincer grasp to hold the writing instrument is necessary for consistently well-formed letters. The child in the picture is demonstrating the correct position for holding a writing instrument. Physical activity simply means movement of the body that uses energy. The health guidelines on the food pyramid recommend a minimum of 30 minutes of moderate or vigorous exercise each day. Limit time for TV watching and computer time or video games. Physical activity, or lack of it, can become a habit. Children need to be outside or in a large indoor area to play. Physical development is both qualitative and quantitative, and sequential. When problems occur, they may be: Medical issues (causes such as disease and birth defects) Anatomical issues (such as muscle tone and flexibility) Idiopathic (unknown causes) Occupational therapy (regular periods of suitable productive activity as treatment) and physical therapy (therapy to increase muscle tone, flexibility, and range of motion) are available for children with delayed or atypical motor development Having good posture means that your bones are properly aligned, which is necessary for muscles, joints, and ligaments to work properly and keep internal organs in the right position for effective performance. “Backpack syndrome” is associated with backpacks weighing more than 10% of the child’s body weight (5% for children under the age of 10). The child should not have to lean forward or have rounded shoulders when carrying a backpack. Proper posture is indicated when the line between the shoulders is level, not tilted. The head should be held straight with no tilting or turning to one side. The bumps on the spine should be in a straight line down the center of the back. Bad posture, including rounded shoulders, rounded upper back, head jutting forward, arched lower back and/or protruding butt may cause chronic back pain. Scoliosis is an abnormal curvature of the spine. It occurs more frequently in girls than boys, and tends to strike as children enter adolescence when the growth rate is rapid. It is easy for parents to mistake scoliosis for bad posture or slumping. Instead of developing straight up and down, the spine may bulge to one side forming a “C” or may curve twice, forming an “S”. Treatment may vary according to the severity of the deformity. Exercises may be adequate in most cases, while braces or surgery are rarely necessary. Scoliosis may cause fatigue, breathing difficulties, and backaches.