The Rise of Capitalism, Marx and Engels claim that capitalism is
Modern, it counts as progress over feudalism. Capitalism is a stage of history and distinctively modern. Marx marks modernity in that capitalism is a stage of progress after feudalism which is the middles ages, period between the fall of Rome and colonization of the Americas.
Feudalism: Agriculture > Industry: If you control agricultural labor you control the entire society and gives you power.
Capitalism: Industry > Agriculture: Introducing machines increases of efficiency of production and you don't need mastercraftsmen (from feudalism)
Feudalism: Aristocrat > Peasant: The aristocrat owns land and you have power if you own land.
Capitalism: Bourgeoisie > Proletariat: If you control money you control society.
Feudalism: Land of servitude: No monetary exchange, it is a military operation
Capitalism: Wages for "free labor": Trading land for services. Provided labor for service.
The Capitalist Mode of Production
Grew within and eventually outgrew the feudal order (pg. 214). : The bourgeoisie found an alternative source of power in the cities and moved on manufacturing and industry. They were able to become the ruling class of their society/capitalism.
Competition and Centralization Simplifies the __
Class Struggle, bourgeoisie vs. proletariat.: Marx and Engels claims the the basic tendency of capitalism is the split society into two classes. There may be periods in history where things seemed to be equalized and wealth seems to be more evenly distributed. The tendency is to drive towards inequality.
Their interests are antagonistic (wages vs. profits and length of the workday.
Civil society is a disguised civil war: the state is a tool or instrument of class rule.