what happens in the beginning of the play of Hecuba?
play opens with Polydorus: the son of Hecuba. Hecuba gives him to Polymestur to protect son Polymestur kills Polydorus in most shameful manner to get gold
who is Hecuba?
Hecuba is the wife of Priom, mother of Hector In this play, she is mother of Polyxena and Polydorus
what happens to polyxena?
needs to be sacrificed to achiles, she is very graceful in accepting her fate, most sympathetic character, dies beautifully and nobly
why does Odysseus refuse to spare Polyxena's life even after Hecuba begs him?
The greeks have to show their strength and greatness, she is not the only one who has had to give up sacrifice, compares her to a barbarian saying she does not honor her dead
how does hecuba learn of her son's death?
The greeks sacrifice Polyxena, but instead of brining her body to Hecuba, they bring Polydorus instead, where Hecuba learns he has been killed
what does hecuba do after she learns of her son's death?
Lures Polymestur (the killer) to a tent, kills his children and then puts out his eyes
what is the first major theme in the play Hecuba?
Good character: Hecuba feels that good character is indestructible, it will remain in tact even in face of death: inborn nobility will remain no matter what happens to that human being Hecuba becomes animal at end of play when she finds out about son’s death changes once son is killed
what happens to hecuba after sons death
she only lives for revenge, uses agamenon and his mistress to get revenge, After she puts out Polymestur’s eyes, he gives prophesy that Hecuba will become a female dog and die and put out to sea, and where he body washes up on land will be a monument. Dog’s are the lowest animal to the Greeks.
what does polyxena show in play?
Polyxena would rather die than live a slave example of Homeric code, code of values, all Greeks adhere
what is kalos?
Kalos: beauty, describes Polyzxena. She is physically beautiful and morally beautiful, it all comes together when she dies. dies perfect death. when she dies, so does Homeric world.
what is the second theme of the play?
transformation from Homeric world to Barbarism (hecuba to animal). Hecuba stops believing in Homeric hero and starts believing in world of barbarism. she is consumed by revenge.
what does euripides describe in the play?
a world with no gods, no honor, no morals. it is a moral vacuum.
if there are no gods what takes place of gods?
where do we see the element of chance in the play?
you can see the element of chance in winds Greeks can’t sail home without winds
what is the major question in "The Behavior of Genes"?
Is good human character the result of nature or nurture?
what would euripides say about nature vs nurture in good behavior?
good character is the result of nurture Nature points towards free will, nurture points towards determinism
what governments does the article address?
Naziism, where human behavior is result of nature, compared to Marxism where he believes human behavior is result of nurture...modern neuroscience
how does DNA work with humans morals? why?
it works both with nature and nurture, both are factors and the way they act. The human genome is dynamic and is prone to changing, the ways they change are subject to environmental factors, however nature is also a huge factor
what is genetic profiling?
we are now reaching a point where we can predict how people will be with their gene structure in their environments Society needs to take in both aspects
what is the pattern of growth people go through?
They move from farms to pastoral to tribes to cities
what did the egyptians, asyrians, and hebrews all use in the early days?
In the early stages of social evolution they use wonts (customs) to hold them together
what happens when tribe expands?
wonts can't hold them together. they use force to do so.
what happens to the hebrews in the 1st stage?
at first, they are welcomed/guests in Egypt. But then egyptians become hostile towards them and Ramses the II makes the hebrews slaves. also passes down power to Ramses III who exiles them to desert. they stay for 40 years, become independent, develop political institutions, Moses leads them out. took 100 years to get promise land back (1010 b.c..)
why did the hebrews face worst kind of slavery in egypt?
For them, slavery is result of human evil. They were wrongly oppressed by the Egyptians. they were not always slaves in Egypt. They were gradually reduced to status of slaves. had to perform limitless work.
what law did they create for themsleves after they took back promise land that reflected their past?
there is a law that says how much a slave is to work per day. there has to be a limit. also, no physical cruelty against a slave.
who was the key villain to the hebrews?
the pharoah, because he put them into slavery wrongfully. they distrusted monarchies for a long time.
what is national tyranny? what does it lead to?
where one people victimizes another people. It leads to a national liberation.
what do we see in the book of exodus?
the first political revolution From oppression to wilderness to covenant to promise land
do the hebrews reach the promise land?
geographically? yes. spiritually? no. it is a land of “milk and honey” but also land of “kingdom of priests and holy nation" milk and honey: materialistic promise. priests and holy nation: requires obedience to laws of covenant, much more difficult to realize
what do the hebrews fail to do?
they fail to live up to the covenant
what do Ezekiel, Jeremiah, Isaiah do?
they condemned the state of Israel to live up to covenant because of their sins: materialism: they worshiped material success idolatry: worshiped pagan idols victimized the poor: mistreated poor pride: forgot they had once been slaves
what happens to the hebrews after their condemnation?
they lose their kingdom in 587
what are the 3 lessons of the hebrews in egypt?
1. Wherever you are it’s probably Egypt, it is probably a land of slavery and bondage 2. There is probably a better place, a promise land 3. The only way to get to the promise land is through the wilderness through political action, democratic revolutionary action
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