West Civ. ? 10.14.2009 Cecil Rhodes: British man. Moved to S. Africa by age of 35 ? had almost completely owned the diamond business (90%). When he died ? he left money & instructions to his friends to take back ALL English colonies across the world (Americas & South Africa). Imperialism & the Coming of War: The New Imperialism: Ambitious/popular enthusiasm. Motives for the New Imperialism: Economic & Social Motives: They wanted resources for European goods Booms economy in Europe by selling to overseas colonies. Germany/Britain/& France didn?t understand that THEY were the best market for their own goods ? so they continued to try to push it upon the colonies. Nationalistic Motives: Russia & U.S. ? were the biggest sized nations so Europe thought that the best way to compete with these 2 nations was to get more land to produce more products. Britain had ALREADY secured India (the largest colony of any European nation). ?The Great Game? ? Britain & Russia pushing the boundaries b/c they were worried about the other taking over their territories. Ideological: Rationalizing this push for greater power overseas. They said ?we have better technology/social powers/etc? let us make these colonies better!? Tools of Conquest: Industrialization ? more weapons/quinine (to help cure malaria)/etc... Better industrialization for takeover. Technology ? Ex: Egypt ? built agricultural advances for irrigation. White streets. It was the wealthy that could afford this though. Politics ? Political units that had never been seen before ? especially in Africa. India ? the new gov?t formed was bringing together the Indians (which would eventually backfire & lead to India wanting release from British rule). Nationalism ? new sense of national pride among these colonies. The Scramble for Africa: Slaves had been procured from Africa for years (from the Coast ? b/c they didn?t want to go further in). They decide that they need to exploit the resources in the center of Africa (after they realized quinine would prevent them from being infected with malaria). Dr David Livingstone Cecil Rhodes King Leopold II: Belgian Congo Cape Town: Boers/Afrikaners The Dutch colony had the colony on the southern tip of South Africa ? in order to regulate trade (a port for vessels traveling from Europe around Africa to Idia). ?Boers? means farmers eventually became ?Afrikaners? ? which means Africans. The Boers/Afrikaners were not getting along with British. Gold/Diamonds were discovered (1880s) tension arose between the Boers & the British. (White on White violence ? but it still took a toll on the African people). Boer War (1899-1902): British win Boer War ? take over all of the Dutch land in Africa. Berlin West Africa Conference (1884-1885): All these countries met & decided on the ?rules? of territorial ownership. **LOOK UP** This is how Africa began being spilt up into all the tiny countries there are today. Ethiopia ? the king fended off Europe while the rest of Africa was carved up by European nations. Direct & Indirect Rule: Direct Rule ? districts were set up that were headed by European personnel they collected taxes/maintained military/etc? They would split up areas that looked like there would be uprisings (in order to divide up the alliances among the people). Indirect Rule ? they tried to use the previously set up governmental institutions from a distance. Imperialism in Asia: India: British East India Co ? trade in tea/cotton/rice/etc? Sepoy Mutiny (1857) ? ?sepoys? are Indian troops. The sepoys mutinied b/c the British wrapped their weapons with cow fat ? to protect them ? and since the Indians were a British colony ? they did not want to use these weapons b/c they believe the cow is sacred. Queen Victoria switched it over to direct rule kept Indians out of high authority positions. Indonesia: The Dutch made settlement ? there was a lot of rubber/etc? British made port at SINGAPORE (**KNOW FOR TEST ? on the tip NOT higher up!**). Indochina ? France tried to colonlize. China: Everyone was trying to split up China between all the European nations. Japan ? refused association with the West. American general forced their leader to open up trade. Modernization would soon follow. Japan forced China (after defeating them) to give up Manchuria & Korea. Russia is encroaching on Manchuria ? Japan attacks Russia (Beats them! 1905 ? forced them to accept defeat). Russia-Japanese War. This established Japan as an international power. International Rivalry: Power alignments ? European nations begin forming alliances against each other. 3 Emporoers League (German/Russia/Austria-Hungary) ? 1873 Triple Alliance (Germany/Austria/Italy) France was left out ? Britain did not care about being left out (not on the continent). Reinsurance treaty ? (1887) ? between Germany & Russia Germany says ?If Austria attacks Russia ? that they will not honor their alliance with them.? France-Russian Alliance (1894) ? they agree that if German attacks either of them ? that they will attack Germany. Now there are 2 main rivalries (Germany/Austria) & (France/Russia). Weltpolitik - **GN** Britain: Entente (understanding/agreement): Britain signed with France / Anglo-Russian then triple entente (Russia/GB/France). 2 main allies: Russia/GB/France (Triple Entente) vs. (germany/Austria/Italy).
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