Motivation 28 Oct. 2008 Expectancy-Value Theory Petri & Govern Ch. 9 Questions to address on the lecture material: Describe Tolman?s ideas regarding ?purposive behavior? and behavior in relation to goals. What did Lewin mean by ?behavioral force? and a field of these forces? Describe some of the reasons this proved to be an important view of motivated behavior. Describe intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation, and give a clear example of each. According to expectancy-value theory, motivation in our behavior is due to three major characteristics ? what are these? Where do our expectancies come from? From last time: value is relative Does Marginal Value operate in the real world? Much evidence Feeding behavior, Cook and Cockrell (1978) study of waterboatmen, Notonecta glauca, feeding on insect larvae Spending more time than the relative energy you area getting back is the marginal value theorem Sexual behavior Parker and Stuart (1976) study of male dung fly, Scatophaga stercoraria, copulation times with females, Study the amount of time spent in copulation with the female and the portion of that females eggs that he fertilizes, the more time he spends the more pay off, but you hit a point where that starts to taper off Helping behavior, Gurven (2004( study of food sharing among hunter-gathering societies in Venezuela and Paraguay You don?t see a linear increase with the more you help other the more help you will get down the road, still hit a point that the value starts diminishing 1. Cognition and Purposive Behavior Edward C. Tolman- major early figure in cognitive psychology Tolman?s ideas of purposive behavior- a lot of behavior is goal oriented Directed towards a goal Selective towards a goal Persistent until goal obtained Consistent pattern of responses ( Our behavior is characterized by purpose (goal-directedness) and cognition We learn (quickly) that particular behaviors lead to particular goals These associations build expectancies about behavioral outcomes Associations(Expectancies Goals: what they are Where they are How to get there Lewin?s view of ?Behavioral Force? A homeostatic cognitive model of human behavior from 1920s/1930s a lot more abstract than others views In addition to physiological needs, it addresses psychological needs Basic idea is that our behavior is being pushed and pulled by conflicting forces Behavior is purposive Directionality- what chose does the individual make Magnitude- intensity of the response Particular force acting on behavior due to: Internal tension( potential need becomes actual need (drive) Value of goals in psychological environment Our psychological distance from the goal Our behavior is subject to a field of these forces Different forces may conflict with one another A complicated view of behavior, with critics, but one that made some important steps: Central role for cognition in behavior Psychological needs seen to be as important as physiological needs Focus on an active individual Generated a great deal of research- strength to any theory 2. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Extrinsic: Motivational factors that come from outside the individual Food, good grades, money, approval of others Intrinsic: Motivational factors that come from within the individual Inherent in the activity being performed Joy in understanding, creating, etc. Both can influence behavior and skill Some studies suggest extrinsic rewards can diminish intrinsic motivation 3. Expectancy-Value Theory Motivation in behavior due to: Individual needs Goals in environment and their value Individual?s expectations about reaching goal Before: ?net value ( behavior? Now: ?net value x expectancy ( behavior? If our expectancy to succeed in a task is 100%, a mediocre goal may not be enough to generate behavior Where do these expectancies come from? Experience Consequences of our own behavior Observations of behavior of others People vary in their tendency to approach demanding situations ?Achievement situations? Generate expectations about valued goals Some people: strong ?motivation to succeed?
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