The Civil War 1861-1862: Limited War Phase Civil War 1861-1862 Aftermath Mexican War American exceptionalism Sectional tensions escalated, Fugitive Slave Act Harriet B. Stowe?s Uncle Tom?s Cabin 1852 Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854 Voided Missouri Compromise; territories decide Violence erupted state and Senate floor Demise of Whig Party; Republican Party 1856 Opposition to extension of slavery Civil War Background Dred Scott case 1857 Supreme court ruled Scott not a citizen Congress could not keep slavery out of territories; political parties failed to stop strife Supreme court joined national institutions plagued by sectional strife John Brown?s raid at Harper?s Ferry 1859 Raid and execution further polarized the nation Both sides saw conspiracies everywhere Election 1860 Democratic party fractured; two candidates Republicans selected moderate in Lincoln Platform accepted slavery where it existed but prohibit it in federal territories Lincoln won Electoral College; only 40% popular vote (every Northern state except NJ) Lower south reacted by secession Starting SC, 7 states left by Feb 1, 1861 Gov. Sam Houston of TX strong opponent Lincoln chose to meet secession with force Civil War 1861 Confederate States of America (Feb 1861) Slaveholding republic; revolution 1776 Confederate constitution similar US Specific state sovereignty and slavery Jefferson Davis selected president Former secretary of war, West Point, Mexican War? Crisis came to head Fort Sumter US military installation Charleston Harbor SC demanded be turned over; low on supplies ?federal government hold, occupy, and protect installations? Northern public opinion now favored forcing southern states back into Union Lincoln promised leave slavery alone in South No offensive move; South be responsible violence Governor told unarmed supply vessel coming April 12, 1861 cannons fired upon Fort Sumter Next day fort surrendered; one US mortal wounded Lincoln strategy of making South fire first shot worked; North rallied and united Called for 75,000 volunteers April 15 Sent Upper South out of the Union (AK,TN,VA,NC) Very important Highly populous; industrial and logistical capacity Strong Union support East TN and West VA Confederate capitol moved to Richmond, VA MD prevented; April 19 6th MA infantry occupied Baltimore North and South anticipated brief war Border states KY and MO central issue US advantages 5-to-2 advantage military age manpower (18-45) Manufacturing and industrial capacity Regular army and navy; experienced officers Financial structure Taxation, loans, print ?greenbacks? Transportation and railroads Naval power Union Objectives & Strategy 1861 Limited war aim: preserve the Union Union problem: how to restore US authority without losing support in North or South? Limited warfare Early strategy Avoid attacks on slavery; uphold Southerners? rights to avoid further alienation Attack Confederate ?military oligarchy? Assumed weak support for Confederacy Enough military victories to destroy rebellion Avoid civilian involvement (Mexican War) Civil War 1861-1862 Confederate advantages Defensive war aims; no need conquer North Early morale and fighting spirit Know terrain; home turf Interior lines Geography; sheer size of South Tie good as a win Civil War 1861 Confederate strategy Offensive defensive Three ways to win Military victory Destroy Union?s ability to wage war Diplomatic victory Entice Britain to support South (England anti-slavery) King Cotton carrot (cotton glut; alternate sources) Political victory Drag out conflict until public elected anti-war government First Bull Run/ First Manasas 21 Jul 1861 Confederates named them after cities or towns Union named battles after bodies of water and physical features
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