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• is the unique way in which each individual thinks, acts, and feels throughout life.
• Freud; focuses on the role of the unconscious mind in the development or personality
- first and most primitive part of personality; pleasure principle-need for satisfaction (hunger, thirst, self-preservation, sex)
- second part; dealing with reality; most conscious and is far more rational, logical; reality principle-which is the need to satisfy the demands of the id only in ways that will not lead to negative consequences; the ego can deny the id do to consequences
- develops as a preschool-aged child learns the rules, customs, and expectations of society
• fixation, or getting stuck to some degree in a stage of development
- focus on mouth; theme is dependency; the conflict that can arise here will be over weaning; Oral fixation when things go wrong
- theme is self-control and obedience; ego develops; When things go wrong… anal retentive-keep it in-over controls or anal expulsive-uncontrolled
- genitals; theme is sexual identity (understanding if you are a boy or girl)
• boys develop sexual attraction to their mothers and jealousy of their fathers. Castration Anxiety: fear of losing their penis; Electra Complex— Penis envy; girls wanting a penis
- 6 to puberty; children grow and develop intellectually, physically and socially but not sexually
- puberty on; sexual feelings are no longer repressed; body changes
• refusal to recognize or acknowledge a threatening situation
• “pushing” threatening or conflicting events or situations out of the conscious memory
• placing one’s own unacceptable thoughts onto others, as if the thoughts belonged to them and not to oneself
• forming an emotional reaction or attitude that is the opposite of one’s threatening or unacceptable actual thoughts
• falling back on childlike patterns as a way of coping with stressful situations
• expressing feelings that would be threatening if directed at the real target onto a less threatening substitute target
• turning socially unacceptable urges into socially acceptable behavior
- believed that the unconscious held much more than personal fears, urges, and memories; he believed not only a personal conscious but a collective unconscious
- developed a theory that as young, helpless children, people all develop feelings of inferiority when comparing themselves to the more powerful, superior adults in their world
- ambiguous visual stimuli are used and clients are asked to describe what they see, unconscious concerns or fears are projected onto stimulus
- 10 inkblots, 5 in black on a white aground and five in color inks on a white background; used to describe personality
• Thematic Apperception Test consists of Behaviorist Perspective: focuses on the effect of the environment on behavior and as addressed here, includes aspects of social cognitive theory in that interactions with others and personal thought processes also influence learning and personality
- governed not just by the influence of external stimuli and response and response patterns but also by cognitive processes such as anticipating, judging and memory as well as learning through imitation of models
- concept of self-efficacy; believed three factors were important: the environment, the behavior itself, and personal cognitive experiences from earlier experiences each affect the other two in a reciprocal; way—reciprocal determinism
- behavioral potential= reinforcement value +expectancy; Locus of Control-the tendency for people to assume that they either have control or do not have control over events and consequences in their lives— Internal/External
- human beings are always striving to fulfill their innate capacities and capabilities and to become everything that their genetic potential will allow them to become
- important tool in human self-actualization is the development of an image of oneself; based on what people are told by others and how the sense of self is reflected in the words and actions of important people in one’s life… example: parents, siblings, coworkers, friends, teachers
- as warmth, affection, love and respect that come from the significant others in people’s experience.
- is necessary for people to be able to explore fully all that they can achieve and become
- is when one acts depending on what others want
- is a person who is in the process of self-actualizing, actively exploring potentials and abilities and experiencing a match between the real self and ideal self
• less concerned with the explanation for personality development and changing personality than they are with describing personality and predicting heavers based on that description.
• believed that certain traits were wired into the nervous system to guide one’s behavior across many different situations and that each person’s constellation of traits were unique.
• Surface traits are like those found by Allport, representing the personality characteristics easily seen by other people. Source traits are those more basic traits that underline the surface traits.
• The Big Five represent the core description of human personality
- a person’s willingness to try new things and be open to new experiences; maintaining the status quo
- is someone who is organized and motivated
- Extraverts are outgoing and sociable, whereas introverts are more solitary and dislike being the center of attention
- is a basic emotional style of a person, who may be easy-going, friendly and pleasant at the high end or grumpy, crabby and hard to get along with at the low end
- refers to emotional instability or stability
• devoted to the study of just how much of individual’s personality is due to inherited traits
- In any given year 26% of Americans experience. The two most common areas are major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
- What is Abnormal Behavior…
- Behavior or thinking that is: unusual; goes against cultural norms; causes significant subjective discomfort; maladaptive; causes a person to be dangerous to self or other. A person must have two of the following to be considered a disorder.
- meaning that the person finds it hard to adapt to the demands of day to day living
- What causes disorders?
• Historical Explanations: Demonic Possession-possessed by demons treated by an exorcism. Another method called Trephining-drilled holes in skulls in thinking that the bad spirits will fly out.
- proposes that psychological disorders have a biological or medical cause. Explains disorders like anxiety, depression and schizophrenia are caused by faulty neurotransmitter systems, genetic problems, brain damage and dysfunction.
- influential; propose that disorders are the result of various forms of emotional, behavioral, or thought-related malfunctioning
- Freud; thinking and behavior as thinking and behavior as the result of repressing one’s threatening thoughts, memories, and concerns in the unconscious mind
- learned responses
- incorporates biological, psychological, nd sociocultural factors
• Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)
- Describes disorders; lists symptoms; Doesn’t explain origin; list around 250 disorders
• excessive anxiety and worries occur more days than not for at least six months
• is the term given to anxiety that seems to be unrelated to any realistic and specific, known factor, and it is often a symptom of an anxiety disorder
- fear of being in a place or situation from which escape is difficult or impossible
- involves fear of interacting with others or being in a social situation and is one of the most common phobias people experience
• an irrational fear; social phobia: involves fear interacting with others or being in social situation and is one of the most common phobias people experience; Specific Phobia: an irrational fear of some object or specific situation
• Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: a disorder in which intruding thoughts that occur repeatedly are followed by some receptive, ritualistic behavior or mental acts. Obsessions—> Anxiety—> Compulsions—> Relief
• Recurring nightmares; sleep disturbances; problems concentrating; flashbacks
• within four weeks of traumatic event
• lasts more than one month
• Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa
• Eating Disorders: Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa
• Mainly within women due to obsession with appearance; diet excessively and have distorted body images; etc
• is a condition in which a person reduces eating to the point that their body weight is significantly low, or less than minimally expected
• is a condition in which a person develops a cycle of “binging” or overeaten enormous amounts of food at one sitting, and then using inappropriate methods for avoiding weight gain.
• disturbances in emotion and are also referred to as affective disorders
• is when a deeply depressed mood comes on fairly suddenly and either seems to be too severe for the circumstances or exists without any external causes for sadness
• a psychotic disorder involving break with reality and disturbances in thinking, emotions, behavior and perceptions
- delusions-false beliefs about the world, hallucinations, disorganized speech, catatonic behavior, changes in mood-flat affect
- rates across cultures; genetics and brain structural defects; stress-vulnerability model: suggests people with genetic markers for schizophrenia will not develop the disorder unless they are exposed to environmental or emotional stress at critical times in development
• inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning. Three types include: odd or eccentric; dramatic, emotional, or erratic; anxiety or fearfulness
• relationships with others that are intense and unstable; often moody; manipulative and untrusting of others; more common in women
• minimal to no regard for value of others’ rights or feelings; more common in men
• Early Treatment
- Bethlehem Hospital: ice baths, induced vomiting, blood letting, beatings
• Two Kinds of Therapy
• typically involves an individual, couple, or small group of individuals working directly with a therapist and discussing their concerns or problems. The goal is to help both mentally healthy and psychological disordered persons understand themselves better.
- directed more at changing behavior than providing insights into the reasons for that behavior
• uses medical interventions to bring symptoms under control
• Aspects of Psychoanalysis: an insight therapy aimed at revealing unconscious conflicts, urges, and desires
- the analysis of the elements within a patients’s reported dream
• Manifest Content is the actual dream and its events
• Latent Content is hidden, a symbolic meaning of those events that would
- belief that repressed impulses and other material were trying to break free consciousness and would eventually surface using this technique
- is the point at which the patient becomes unwilling to talk about certain topics
• Humanistic Therapy
• Focus on the present, not the past
• Focus on conscious choices
• Rogers’ Person-Centered Therapy—client is truly enter of the process
- refers to a technique therapists use to allow clients to continue to talk and have insights without the interference of the therapist’s interpretations and possible biases
- having respect for an individual and their feelings, values, and goals, even if they are different from those of the therapist
• aim to change behavior through the use to learn any new responses; based on classical conditioning
• behavioral techniques that introduce the client to situations, under carefully controlled conditions, which related to their anxieties or fears
• involved the client and therapist developing a fear hierarchy as in systematic desensitization. Systematic Desensitization is when a therapist guides the client though a series of steps meant to reduce fear and anxiety.
• when exposure is rapid and intense and it begins with the most feared event
• the process of reducing the frequency of undesirable behaviors, such as smoking or overeating, by teaching the client to pair an unpleasant stimulus with the stimulus that results in the undesirable response
• states that a person with specific fears or someone who needs to develop social skills can learn to do so by watching someone else
• strengthening a response by following it with a pleasurable consequence
• objects known as tokens can be traded for food, candy, treats, or special privileges; earned
• involves the removal of a reinforcer to reduce the frequency of a particular response
- “jumping to conclusions” without evidence
- the person focuses only on one aspect of a situation, leaving out other relevant facts
- when a person blows bad things out of proportion while not emphasizing good things
- when an individual takes responsibility or blamer events that are not really connected to the individual
• : focuses on the present rather than the last but also assumes that people interact with the world with more than simple, automatic reactions to external stimuli
• Relieve symptoms and help clients resolve the problems; help clients develop strategies that can be used to cope with future problems; and help clients change the way they think from irrational, self-defeating thoughts to more rational, self-helping, positive thoughts
• Lithium—a metallic chemical element that in its salt form evens out both the highs and the lows of bipolar disorder
• Antidepressant Drugs:
- Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: antidepressants that block the activity of the enzyme; controls mood; tricyclic antidepressants; selective serotonin repute inhibitors
• treats severe depression; involves the application of an electric shock and resulting seizure that appears to normalize the balance of neurotransmitters within the brain
• used as a last resort, involves cutting into the brain to remove and destroy brain tissues associated with symptoms of mental disorder; prefrontal lobotomies
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