–Eocene – Recent –Long legs and tail –Procumbent lower incisors–North America and Old World; now just Madagascar and Comoro Islands Lemur, loris, bush baby, aye-aye.
–Omomyidae (extinct) and Tarsiidae (Recent) –Paleocene to Recent –Non-opposable thumb, adhesive pads on slim fingers and toes. –Nocturnal: large eyes and ears. –Tibia fused to fibula (single “tarsier” bone)–Omnivores.
•Large canines hone against premolar. •Molar-like premolars •Broad, square molars •Longer period of infant care. •Eosimiidae (Eocene) ancestral stock; China. 2-1-3-3 (loss of a premolar). More vertical incisors than “prosimians”.•Initially thumb-sized bodies.
•Platyrrhini (Oligocene – Recent): “flat nose”
•Catarrhini (Eocene – Recent): “hanging nose”
–Flat nostrils open toward side of face. –Evolved from Egyptian OligoceneParapithecus (2-1-3-3), later becoming 2-1-3-2 in some species. –Retained arboreal habits with long, prehensile tail and little social development.
New World Monkeys
–Nostrils open ventrally; projecting nose in some. –Dental formula 2-1-2-3 or 2-1-2-2. More ground dwelling and socially develop
Catarrhini: Propliopithecus (Oligocene)
-Propliopithecus (aka Aegyptopithecus) is the ancestor to the Catarrhini.
-Prominent canine teeth
Descendants include 2 superfamilies:
–“Old World Monkeys”, e.g., Macaca.
–Bilophodont: two crests (lophs) linking transverse pairs of cusps on molars.
–Varied feeding preferences.
–Evolved from Propliopithecus. –Arboreal fruit eaters with generalized, quadrupedal locomotion (vertical clinging and leaping, or VCL)
Superfamily Hominoidea ( First appeared in Miocene) : Includes what 2 families?
•Family Hominidae (Miocene – Recent):
–Kenyapithecinae (Miocene) –Ponginae (Miocene – Recent) –Homininae (Miocene – Recent) Medium to shorter armed; retained VCL initially
Miocene Hominidae: Kenyapithecinae
•Begin as arboreal (tree-dwelling) frugivores (eating mostly fruits and leaves) and omnivores, but some evolved wide, thick-enameled molars for tougher fruits, nuts, and roots, i.e., some food from the ground. •Ancestral stock group for australopithecines.
•Kenyapithecus and Equatorius:
–Thick molar enamel; tougher foods. –Canines more nearly equal size in males, females.
Kenyapithecus, what is important about his teeth?
–Miocene –Very thick molar enamel and wide molars like australopithecines –Reduced sexual dimorphism in canine teeth
•Miocene - Pleistocene •Eight feet tall, massive molars and premolars. •Ate coarse leaves Candidate for the “yeti” legend, as it overlapped modern humans during the Pleistocene epoch.
•Pongo (orangutan)–SE Asia. –Mostly tree-dwellers. –Strong sexual dimorphism in canine teeth and cheek flanges; males larger
Hominidae: subfamily Homininae; contains what 2 tribes?
•Reduced sexual dimorphism of canines, small in both males and females. •“Feminization” of males, more cooperative behavior, less male-dominance oriented, except for some politicians. •Initially protruding muzzle and small brain like chimps •Unique: dental arch diverges toward back and knees lock for fully upright stance.
Ancestor of Australopithecus
Australopithecus (4.2-1.0 Ma)
•Thicker tooth enamel, stronger jaws than both Ardipithecus and Homo. •Long arms and fingers yet fully bipedal. •Retention of some arboreal habits, thereby possibly limiting brain•Two subgenera: –A. (Australopithecus) (4.1-2.3 Ma) –A. (Paranthropus) (2.6-1.0 Ma)
Homo, that is you kenzie :)
•Locking knees, small canines, reduced sexual dimorphism, not larger brains. •Came from Australopithecus (Australopithecus) or Kenyapithecus.•Ground dwelling makes possible larger brain: –Larger brain requires birth at developmental stage when brain is still small. –Birth at early developmental stage requires longer period of infant care. –Longer period of infant care requires life largely on the ground.
Brain size isn’t everything. Hard drive comes loaded with (for homo):
•Intuitive psychology: awareness of the mental lives of others, as well as self-awareness.Abstract thought escalates.Potential for religious thought. •Intuitive physics: objects exist when out of site, obey laws of motion.Throwing expertise. •Intuitive engineering: tool function transcends the shape and composition of the raw material. Intuitive ethics: innate sense of “good” and “bad” behavior in human interaction
Homo habilis (2.5 – 1.6 Ma)
•East Africa, Pliocene – Pleistocene. •Retains long, strong arms, protruding mouth. •Thinner molar enamel, posteriorly expanded jaw, small canines and incisors, 630 cc brain.
Homo erectus (1.8 – 0.2 Ma)
•Cosmopolitan, late Pliocene – Pleistocene •Retains ancestral funnel shaped rib cage. •Larger brained, smaller teeth and jaws than H. habilis. •Enlarged hip and back joints for strong running. •Acheulian flaked stone tools; used fire.
Homo erectus (1.8 – 0.2 Ma) Cont.
•Loss of body hair occurred about 2.0 Ma according to DNA study of human scalp and pubic hair lice. Ancestors of H. erectus had only one louse species, as in hairy apes. •Hairless bodies permitted sweating over most of the body to aid cooling. •Cooled bodies allowed for endurance daytime hunting, running prey to exhaustion
Homo sapiens neanderthalensis 0.30 – 0.03 Ma
•Pleistocene, Europe, Middle East. •Stocky, muscular bodies, short fingers and toes, large incisors, wide, long nose, no chin; posteriorly elongated foramen magnum. •Levalloisian, Mousterian tools
•Heavy wooden spears
Homo sapiens sapiens 125,000 -
Specialized tools from blades struck from prepared cores predominate. Needles, skin clothing Shafted stone, bone, and ivory tools; harpoons, spear throwers, fish hooks
Out of Africa Hypothesis
•Archaic Homo sapiens left Africa between 100,000 and 200,000 years ago, gradually displacing populations of Homo erectus, Homo antecessor, and Homo sapiens neanderthalensis. •This happened before the final exodus of H. sapiens from Africa ca. 70,000 B.P. • Supported by some DNA studies.
Colonization of the Americas
•Multiple waves of invaders from the Old world, from both northeastern and southeastern Asia.
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