FINAL EXAM SATURDAY DEC 12 1:30-4PM 11/10/09 (part one) Jackson & Antebellum America 1824-1840 John Quincy Adams Secretary of State, Monroe Adams-Onis Treaty Monroe Doctrine Henry Clay as Secretary of State Jackson comes to power Electioneering Democratization of election process Began to focus on person instead of ideology Jackson ? First westerner Authentic man of the people Jackson democratizes presidency Public reception at White House Thrown by Jackson for winning presidency Believed the house was represented by the people, so should be open to the people Jackson and the Politics of Democracy Symbol of Democracy?s Triumph People finally ?gained upper hand? Democratic Party No longer Democratic-Republicans ?Universal? white male suffrage Almost all white males are allowed to vote No more land required to vote Whig Party Jackson took strong hand in many things, causing Whig Party to emerge. The Nullification Crisis John C. Calhoun Calls for nullification Tariff of 1832 South Carolina called a convention to nullify tariffs of 1828 & 1832 South Carolina threatened to secede if tariffs aren?t nullified Force Bill of 1833 Allowed Jackson to use force and army to enforce tariffs Calhoun resigns as vice president Calhoun goes to the senate Henry Clay secures passage of Tariff of 1833 The Bank War Jackson takes on Second Bank of United States Symbolic defense of democracy Economic disruption Similar to Jefferson?s embargo Two-party system The Bank & Election of 1832 Nicholas Biddle President of Bank of United States Jackson was a vague threat If Biddle got a new charter early, he could exceed Jackson?s presidential term and secure safety of the bank Jackson?s position Called bank unconstitutional Vetoed Congress? pass for charter of bank A blow for equality Roger Taney Employed by Jackson to work in scheme to thwart bank Mr. Biddle?s bank Jackson kills the Bank of United States Killed by usage of federal deposits Biddle began his move Called in notes from state banks Caused recession Thought financial crisis would demonstrate need for a central bank Failed horribly Emergence of the Whigs Coalition of Forces Jackson opponents Leftover federalists mainly, some Hamiltonians Anti-Masonic party Were in favor of Activist government Supported economically and in passing laws to ensure decency Very early prohibition movement Martin van Buren Blamed for Panic of 1837 Whigs were strong in Jacksonian south ?stronghold? Ran evenly with Democrats in the south. Panic of 1837 Result of killing bank All state banks who borrowed from Bank of United States had to give back all borrowed money to Federal Government Cotton prices fell by 50% Businesses go bankrupt 1840: Election of William Henry Harrison Defeats van Buren Alexis de Tocqueville Tours young United States Criticized white males who refused to extend fairness to African-Americans, Indians, and Women
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