There could be a multi-billion year gapbetween Genesis 1:1 and verses 1:2 & 1:3.
Day-Age theory creationism
“6 days of creation” becomes “6 ages ofcreation”.
Young Earth Creationism
*Scientists wrong in estimates of Earth’s age.
*No evidence supports scientific claims for anancient earth or evolution.
*Theory of biological evolution is aconspiracy to promote atheism and reject the historical accuracy of Genesis. (D'arby)-believed this
“Scientific” Creationism. Selectively seekssupporting data in science for Biblical Genesis. Unlike true science, it rejects all conflicting scientificevidence as inherently false.Intelligent designcreationismCreationismwith an implied but not specifically stated creator. Declared by U.S. court in 2005 to be inextricably entangledwith creationism.
Tennessee vs. Scopes,1925
John Scopes, school teacher in Dayton, TN
Butler Act -- March 13, 1925nforbade teaching of any theory denying thestory of divine creation of man as taught in the Bible in any state-fundededucational establishment
Explicitly forbade teaching any storydepicting man descending from a lower order of animals
Scopes, with support of ACLU, intentionallydefied the Butler Act.DiscussedHunter’s Civic Biology text in class.
Prosecutor WilliamJennings Bryan
three-time Democratic candidate for Presidentand a populist, led a Fundamentalist crusade to banish the theory of evolutionfrom American classrooms.Led theprosecution of Scopes.
American antievolutionmovement 1959 - present
1959: Biological Sciences Curriculum Studydevelops new biology texts which position evolution at the forefront ofbiological education.nThis emphasis on evolution created a reactionary defense byantievolutionists.
U. S. Constitution, Establishment Clause, First Amendment.
“Congress shall make no law respecting anestablishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.”
Public school curriculumprovides classes for religion.nCreationism can be taught under religious studies.
Church of England and Catholic Church accept biologicalevolution.
USNational Science Education Standards (1996)
Established unified standard for scienceeducation.
U.S. Antievolution after1959
1963, Henry Morris and John Whitcomb. TheGenesis Flood.Young Earth Creationism. Early 1970s, Morris helped found theInstitute for Creation Research
Institute for CreationResearch.
the idea that manybiological systems are too complex to function without each and every component(ex: bacterial flagella motors, blood clotting)
- if something is bothspecified and complex it cannot be part of a naturalprocess.
·E.g.,a letter of the alphabet is specific, and a series
of random letters is complex, but aShakespearean sonnet is both specified and complex.
Fallacy of “BalancedTreatment”
“Balanced treatment” in the US generallyassumes there is only one religious alternative to evolutionary theory, andthat this is intelligent design.
Leaders in the Anti-Evolution Movement
•MichaelBehe: Leigh University, fellow at Discovery Institute.••AndyMcIntosh: Leeds University;evolutionary theory and the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics are incompatible.•
•PhillipE. Johnson:ret. Professor of Law at Berkeley, author of Darwin on Trial.•
•BenStein: Politicalcorrespondent, TV show “Win Ben Stein’s Money.” •
Lemon v. Kurtzman
1971--Whether two state statutes (one fromRhode Island and one from Pennsylvania) providing state aid to church-relatedelementary and secondary schools violate the Establishment Clause of the FirstAmendment.nEstablished the “Lemon” Test for theconstitutional establishment clause.
The “Lemon” Test
Does the law or government action in questionhave a bona fide secular purpose?
Does the state action have the primary effectof advancing or inhibiting religion?
Does the action excessively entangle religionand government?
Epperson v.Arkansas - 1968
established Tennessee’s Butler Act as unconstitutional.
Consequences of Edwards v. Aguillard, et al.
Of Pandas and People (text offering “balanced treatment” withevolution and intelligent design)
Attacked evolutionary theory withoutmentioning the identity of a supposed intelligent designer.
Almost adopted as a supplementary biologytext in Alabama.nContains numerous scientific inaccuracies.
Kitzmiller v. Dover, PA School District
*2004--The Dover Area School Board inHarrisburg, Pennsylvania required teachers to read a statement regardingevolution and intelligent design to 9thgrade biology students:
*“Because Darwin's Theory is a theory, it continues to be testedas new evidence is discovered. The Theory is not a fact. Gaps in the Theoryexist for which there is no evidence. A theory is defined as a well-testedexplanation that unifies a broad range of observations.”
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