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The beat of the music in time aspect
The fabric or sound- how thick or thin music is
-Monks:-afterlife: how you lived determined if you went to heaven or hell-for many living apart from the world was the best route to heaven.-guaranteed
-Christmas 800 Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne who had conquered then reunited much of old roman empire as holy roman empire. this highlights bond between church and state at the time and the rarely questioned authority of church.
-Many joined clergy even though not completely devoted.... (new line)-Divine office, Plain Chant, greg..
Periods of daily prayer in monasteries which occurred at regular intervals in the day, from sunrise to after sunset
-composed in 16th/17th century were polyphonic setting of secular poems
--usually cappella (no instruments) with each singer reading part from part book
-intended for amateur performance but some were composed more elaborate entertainments
-spent first part of life composing at early age- composer and performer and skilled vocalists
-transformed the madrigal into an even more expressive genre and composed first significant opera-both earned him international reputation
-frustrated with low pay so took position as director of music at St. Mark's
-turned into opera composer and composed Orfeo
-attacked by Artusi
-most important English born composer of the Baroque period
-main work was semi-operas where main characters and minor characters sing and dance.
-He wrote "Dido and Aeneas"
Growth of opera
-during middle 17th century opera became a business
-only a sex week season that preceded lent of a ticket buying audience
-it became major cultural export to Italy, France, and german speaking Europe.
-French court developed its own operatic tradition after Italian model and Jean-Baptiste played the principal role I formulating it.
-hennery Purcell compose only one piece because of little demand of opera (warmed up slowly)
-Music became profession mainly because rise of middle class with a demand for secular music
-earliest composers: clergy- music was simply part of their work
-musicians began to form guilds
-top singers were stars and enjoyed high social status :
-rise of secular culture/economic growth made more jobs available for musicians and those connected
The Five Mass parts
-Kyrie: Lord have mercy
-Gloria: Glory to God in the highest
-Credo: I believe in one God
-Sanctus: Holy Holy Holy
-Agnus Dei: lamb of God
-music making in the home grew throughout the century
-virtually no commercial popular music because there was no industry to disseminate it but in early 18th century that changed
-Public performance, publishishing royalties and private instruction supplemented and in some cases replaced patronage as source of income for musicians
-Joseph Haydn :most esteemed composers in Europe
-Main centers of activity: Western Europe(Italy, France. Germany, Austria, British Isles)
-Early in century the influence of Italian music was pervasive
-English composer: William Byrd, John Dowland, Henry Purcell.
-Vienna became main center of musical activity and influence: Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven all settled there
-baroque flourished the first half of century but during last quarter classical style did which remained popular
-BAROQUE: much of the concert mysic fo the 17th and early 18th centuries; Late baroque music seeks to project a single mood in a composition of major section
-CLASSICAL: the concert music of the late eighteenth century. Sought to create musical tension typically through contrast then to resolve the tension
-Instruments were fairly new but what changed was quality composers and performers exploited
-VIOLIN: same 100 years ago only now made with metal not gut. Most widely used melody and cello was preferred bass instrument. suitable for use in church, chamber settings, archesta pits and outdoors
-HARPSICHORD: popular solo instrument
-CHURCH SONATA: 4 movement sonata, which often served as music for the mass
-CHAMBER SONATA: secular sonata in 3 or more movements
-SOLO SONATA: instrumental composition that typically requires 3 players
-about a century the heart of the suite consisted of 4 dances:lemande, courante, sarabande, gigue
-Baroque composers composed suites for solo instruments, chamber ensembles and orchestras
-performed JS Bach's St Matthew Passion which brought his mysic to the attention of scholars and audiences and helped raise him as one of the greatest composers of any era.
-one of three "b"s
-we hear his music everywhere as we wait on hold
-bridge between old and new (classical and baroque)
-One of the last significant Lutheran composers and last great contrapuntal composer of sacred music
-Italian born French composer who most responsible for the development of the 17th century orchestra
-conduct ensembles by stomping a cane on the floor while sitting at keyboard instruments
-He died after injuring his foot during a performance
-combined orchestras and added wind and percussion which impressed musical visitors
-concerto that features a singe solo instrument such as a Violin or Flute
-One of the greatest composers of the late baroque era
-premier composer of Italian baroque opera
-when he arrived in England he brought newly revamped form of opera- soon be called opera seria
Used popular music of the day
First funny opera
-written by John Gay-enormously successful
-the plot is funny but at same time takes aim at almost all of English society
-added 69 songs to play and changed their words
-not really an opera, but a play that was a satire of opera
-its a broadside ballad
-Wrote the Beggars opera
-the co creator of one of the earliest works of popular music
-English poet and dramatist, not composer
-opening for Beethoven's symphony
-Don Juan was terrific point of departure for an opera but Mozart transformed it into one of the great operas of all time
-most distinctive feature of concerto
-an orchestra made up of strings along with the one or more spotlighted instruments.
-number of spotlighted instruments determined the type of concerto
Ari with three sections; an opening section, a contrasting section, and a reprise of the opening section
-Singers were expected to embellish the opening melody
-Italian for "first lady"
-the chief female singer in a n opera or opera company
-very temperamental person with an inflated view of his or her own talent or importance
-Sonata: multi movement work
-sonata form: The form or shape of a single piece
-Harpsichord: keyboard instrument in which depressing a key causes a plectrum to pluck one or more strings
-Pianoforte: 18th century keyboard instrument, so called because performers could play both soft and loud by changing their touch
-Chamber ensemble consisting of two violinists, a violist and a cellist
-F.J. Haydn: Father of the symphony and string quartet
-main difference in early and late is that the new instruments were no longer optional.
-permanent addition of woodwind and brass instruments
-opera would have shocked early eighteenth century audiences especially the aristocracy.
-social change in the century
-radical transformation of opera during the latter part of 18th grew out of 3 developments: growing popularity of new, lighter forms of stage entertainments, the reform of serious opera
-shaped opera into more flexible and more dramatically credible genre.
-concertos of Mozart are the only 18th century ones that apperar on the programs of contemporary symphony orchestra's
-`his concerts were marvoulous work that strikes a balance between solo and orchestra
-first concertos that truly embody our contemporary understanding of concerto
-left at age of 7 and took 3 year tour around Europe playing at every stop- audiences were amazed
-then later he toured Italy for 2 years and left an even better impression
-enjoyed an international reputation as superb composer and finest keyboard players in Europe
-2 people are connected only by hands rather than other body parts
-used in swing and Latin dancing
-leader must be able to guide follower using only basic frame
Explain the close position in partner dancing
-When two partners hold and face on =e another.
-Require that partners contact one another with more than just hands; typically either with their legs hips or shoulders and one partner may be supported by another.
-derived from the waltz
-one of the forms of closed position
-direction given by the lead partner to the other is made through more extensive contact than just the arms
-such as thighs hips chest cheek or forehead
most of the more provocative dances use this body contact style
-jumps in which the dancer performs either a single or double rotation while in the air.
-Difficult movement usually performed by males
-pose in which the dancer stands on one leg with the other leg raised either in front or behind
-holding attitude with the leg bearing the weight is held with h knee bent at an angle of 120 degrees
a kicking of the leg
-various kinds : battement glisse (rapid short kick) and battement lent (slow long kick)
-French word for jump
-petits sauté-small jumps in which feet maintain their position
-Enchapppe sautés- in which feet split apart mid jump and land in second position
Digital Revolution that continues in our time and profoundly shaped our musical world.
-An electrical signal from a microphone, input, or playback device is converted into digital information by sampling the waveform at an extremely high rate.
-it enables the following technological advances- sampling and MIDI
(Musical Instrument Digital Interface)
-Protocol that enables communication between digital instruments and devices
-first surfaced as an obscure folk dance music played throughout Mississippi
-New style that applied to any music with even a hint of syncopation rhythm
-young Russian inventor who created the first electronic instrument which featured two antennae, one to regulate pitch, the other to regulate volume
-it bears his name- The theremin
- Believed all noise is music (silent song called 4 min 33 sec)
known for his chancemusic: believed that any sound can be music; biggest proponent of chance music.
Known for his prepared piano pieces, put things in the piano to create a new sound.
1. Liberation of the rhythm section
2. Rapid tempos
3. Asymmetrical, irregular melodic lines
4. Complex harmony
5. Aggressive sounds
quintessentially African American music that has roots in African music most directly in the stories of the griots
-classical: commercially recorded blues
-folk blues: down home blues that flourished in the post civil war rural south especially in Mississippi delta
-Innovation in Pitch and Rhythm
Bop musicians reconceived nearly every parameter of music: Rhythm melody harmony and sound. The most significant innovations were there 5:
-Liberation of rhythm selection
-asymmetrical irregular melodic lines
know as "Bird"
-brought his sax along thinking he was ready but he wasn't. He left band stand deeply humiliated
-He joined McShanns band and by the 1945 his coleagues from mintons playhouse were performing together and recording.
-he recorded frequently until his death
-suffered from substance abuse
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