Egypt and the Arab World during the Cold War A. Background Britain and France tried to gain power in this area Saudi Arabia had oil Control of waterways 1948 war and the establishment of the state of Israel After WWII the effect of the european nations on the region was greatly weakened Egypt under British control 1882 wanted to control Suez canal Egypt biggest population in region B. Baghdad Pact (1955) a military alliance pact signed by Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, Turkey and Britain. It aimed to contain Soviet expansion in the Middle East C. Nationalization of Suez Canal - On July 1956, Nasser announced the nationalization of the Suez Canal D. Suez War (1956) This war marked: -The end of the period of European imperialism in the region and the beginning of the entanglement of the region in the Cold War -It also marked an attempt by the Arab countries and especially Egypt to assert their independence. -In October 1956 Britain France and Israel, launched a military campaign to occupy the Suez Canal which they hoped would lead to the fall of Nasser. - The US and Soviet Union intervened and pressured countries to stop and withdraw from country - Stopped aggression and withdrew from Egypt -Suez War enhanced Nasser's status in Egypt and throughout the Arab and Third world E. Aftermath Czechoslovak Arms deal of 1955 -In 1955 signed an agreement with Czechoslovakia for the purchase of advanced Soviet arms - The agreement undermined the containment policy which the US was trying build in the Middle East European Imperialism Ottoman Empire Egypt Suez Canal Mohammad Ali - reform to modernize country? Revolution of 1919 - the popular protest of 1919 marked the rise of a popular nationalist movement in Egypt Revolution of 1952 - In July 1956 a group of young officers led by Gamal Abdel Nasser staged a coup, abolished the monarchy and established an authoritarian regime - The pledged to secure the complete independence of the country and promote economic development and social justice Gamal Abdel Nasser Baghdad Pact (1955) Aswan Dam -Nassar wanted to build a dam to develop agricultural sector in Egypt - He negotiated a loan from the World Bank involving British and US participation - the US and Britain withdrew form the loan offer in July 1956 Suez War (1956) Arab Cold War - Nasser was acclaimed as a hero in the Arab world and he proceeded to end Western influence in the region by confronting the Western Arab allies in the region - The Arab Cold War pitted Egypt and Syria, backed by Soviet Union against Saudi Arabia, Jordan and Iraq backed by the West Arab Israeli War (1967) The defeat of Egypt and Syria in the 1967 war altered the balance of power in the region between the radical Arab camp, backed by the Soviet Union and the pro-Western Arab camp, and between the US and the Soviet Union October War 1973
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